Coronary Artery Anatomy as related to EKG Interpretation

Patients undergoing Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) are at an increased risk of coronary artery occlusion related to clot formation (thrombosis) or plaque rupture, especially in the acute period after procedure. It is imperative that individuals providing care for this patient population are knowledgeable in reading EKG’s and are able to correlate EKG changes with acute coronary artery occlusions and / or spasms.

When a patient presents with chest pain, pressure, tightness, shortness of breath or other related symptoms status post PTCA, a STAT EKG should be ordered. When caring for a patient post PTCA, is important to know which coronary artery was ballooned and/or stented and be able to identify the EKG leads which reflect those coronary arteries.

The best way to learn how the EKG reflects the coronary anatomy is to take a systematic approach.  Think about where the EKG leads are placed on the patient’s chest and visualize the heart within the chest.  This article assumes that the reader already knows how to read an EKG strip and understands what the P, Q, R, S and T represent on the EKG.

The limb leads are I, II and III. Lead I is between the right arm and left arm; Lead II is between the right arm and left leg; Lead III is between the left arm and left leg.

            The precordial leads are V1- V6. V1 is the fourth intercostal space to the right of the septum; V2 is the fourth intercostal space to the left of the sternum; V3 is directly between leads V2 and V4; V4 is the fifth intercostal space at midclavicular line; V5 is at the same level as V4 but at the left anterior axillary line; V6 is level with V5 but is at the midaxillary line.

The right coronary artery (RCA) provides oxygen supply to the inferior portion of the heart. Therefore, it is leads II, III, and aVf that reflect this artery.

            Next let’s look at the anterior and septal leads. These are V1 , V2, V3 and V4. These leads lay directly over the anterior and anterioseptal area of the heart.  The left anterior descending artery (LAD) lies down the front of the heart, providing the septal and anterior walls with oxygen. Leads V1 and V2 reflect the LAD and septum. The LAD and diagonal branches are reflected in the EKG leads V3 and V4.

            The lateral wall is exactly that. The part of the heart that faces the lateral part of the chest wall. This area is reflected in the leads V5 and V6, I and aVL. These leads reflect the circumflex artery.

            Myocardial ischemia and injury are reversible (2). This is due to an increase in demand, or a decrease in supply of oxygen (2).  An acute MI will have the following progression: Tall T waves in the first few minutes; ST elevation or T wave inversion in the first hour(s); possibly pathologic Q waves in the hours after onset; Q waves remain and ST and T waves return to normal in the days following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (2).

            Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) must be 1 mm in the inferior leads and 2 mm in the anterior leads (2).  There MUST always be a presence of ST elevation in 2 or more contiguous leads (2).

By definition, a myocardial injury has ST segment elevation of at least one mm above the baseline (1). Other signs may be: straightening of the ST segment that slopes up to the peak of the T wave without any time spent at baseline; tall, peaked T waves; or symmetric T wave inversion (1).

            Myocardial ischemia has a classic pattern of T-wave inversion (1). The ST segment may be depressed 0.5 mm or more below baseline, or the ST segment may remain at baseline longer than 0.12 seconds, or from a sharp angle with the upright T wave (1). The EKG may also present tall, wide-based T waves and inverted U waves.

            A myocardial infarction (MI) may present with the development of Q waves on the EKG in the leads reflecting the affected coronary artery (1). Decreased R-wave amplitude, ST segment depression and T-wave inversion are also sometimes noted on the EKG (1).

References

1        Microsoft Power Point – The NEW 12-Lead ECG. Retrieved from www.wccems.com/Files/12_Lead_ECGs.pdf on June 15, 2010.

2        www.ambulancetechnicianstudy.co.uk/ecgbasics.html Ambulance Technician Study : ECG Basics. Retrieved June 15, 2010.

Source: Jaaska Lyn Cather
mi


Different Brands of Porcelain Veneers, Explained by Dallas Veneers Dentist, Dr. Mark Sowell

The following is a list of commercially available veneer systems that a advertised direct to the patients in the media and the internet.

Lumineers brand veneers- are a brand of veneers that are lucite reinforced pressed ceramic (porcelain) made only by the Ceranate Design Studio of the Denmat Corporation and shipped to our Cosmetic dentistry Dallas office. This is designed for the minimal of no reshaping technique. The benefit is that it a reversible procedure requiring no needles or temporaries. It can be made to a thickness of only .2 mm, like contact lenses. Since it is advocated in the no –minimal reshaping technique the teeth are somewhat broader (.4 mm) and thicker (.2mm). and dramatic changes in color and shape are more difficult without making thicker. This is an excellent choice for my Dallas cosmetic dentistry patients who are fearful of having their teeth reshaped but want some esthetic improvements.

Mac Veneers- This is a veneer made and shipped to our Dallas dental practice by Micro Dental Laboratory. They use predominately pressed ceramic made my Ivoclar called Empress but they also have some ceramists who are trained in stacked (feldspathic) ceramics.

DaVinci Veneers- This is a brand of veneers made by DaVinci Dental Laboratory in California and sent to our cosmetic dentistry office in Dallas, TX. This is the laboratory that made the veneers for Bill Dorfman, DDS in the TV show “Extreme Makeover”. They make veneers predominately from feldspathetic ceramic (stacked porcelain).

Empress Veneers- This brand is a pressed ceramic veneer made by Ivoclar Corporation and sold to dental laboratories all over the world and used in some cases in our Dallas cosmetic dental practice for patients who clench or grind their teeth (clenchers and grinders). There are other dental companies that make pressed ceramic but Ivoclar is the biggest and best know. Any ceramist can buy and use this system. I have discussed its strengths and weaknesses in my discussion of pressed ceramics.

Durathins Veneers – A brand of Feldspathic (stacked) Dallas porcelain veneers, these porcelains are sold to ceramists all over the world; one of the biggest producers is the Vita Corporation. I have discussed its strengths and weaknesses above in my discussion of feldspatheitc (stacked) porcelains.

Emax Veneers (Lithium Disilicate) – This is the newer and strongest of the veneer materials, it is available to all ceramists and dentist. It has tremendous upside due to its durability but has more esthetic limitations that the others porcelains mentioned. Ivoclar Corporation, its producer, is developing new more natural colors and better translucency.

With all the different brands of veneers available today, cosmetic dentistry patients should select a dentist that is highly experienced in porcelain veneer makeovers and offer a variety of options to best meet the need of the patient’s unique situation. Often one brand of porcelain or composite veneers does not “fit all”, so be sure that the brand of veneers that you receive as a patient are the kind of veneers that fit your individual needs and desires.

Source: Mark Sowell
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Johnny Trigg – Bbq Pitmaster Of Smokin' Triggers

Johnny Trigg has been cooking barbecue, and winning, for some years now. Infact, so far he has managed to bag over $550,000 dollars in prize money as he has worked his way through a myriad of BBQ events while claiming a whole slew of titles along the way.

Featured in the TV show BBQ Pitmasters that has aired over the last few weeks on TLC, Johnny has been fortunate enough to escape a great deal of anguish that the other competitors have (see the power outage that affected Lee Ann Whippens rottiserie).

Alvarado born Texan, Johnny Trigg is well known for his top quality ribs, winning solid placements in events, and was named Grand Champion in the 15th annual Pork Checkoff-sponsored Great Pork BarbeQlossalTM way back in 2002.

At the time, his winning team, Smokin Triggers, earned cash and prizes including the grand prize of $5,000 and a Kingfisher Kooker valued at $1,700.

Things have only move onward and upward for Trigg since then, as he also won the Jack Daniel’s Championship in 2000 and 2003 and so far, has taken over 40 Grand Championships nationwide.

Much like Tuffy Stone, the relatively laid-back Trigg who is often called “The Grandfather of BBQ”, favors the use of a 26″ offset Jamie Geer built Jambo Pit that he has used with great success since he started competing seriously over a decade ago.

Johnny Triggs Smokin’ Triggers BBQ Grilling Tips

1. Purchase quality meats.

2. Use a rub or spice that will bring out the flavors.

3. Do not overcook the meat. Use a temperature gauge to check the doneness of the meat.

4. Use lump charcoal instead of bricks.

5. Do not soak wood chunks. It will add too much smoke flavor.

Johnny Trigg is set to perform well in TLC’s BBQ Pitmasters, among the stiff competition of Myron Mixon, Lee Ann Whippen, Paul Petersen, Jamie Geer, Harry Soo and Tuffy Stone who are all competing for the $40,000 prize.

Source: Lewis Theakson
tv

Abandonment & Divorce – Legally Speaking

I have been a divorce lawyer in Oakland County Michigan for many years and over the years I have often been asked at the initial meeting “Will I face abandonment issues in my divorce because I moved out of the home or if I move out of the home?”

Fortunately, unlike many issues in divorce, there is a simple answer to this Question.  No, you will not.  This is true in Michigan and it should be true in any “No-fault” divorce state if you do not live in Michigan.

 The explanation is a little more complicated and involves a little history in Michigan Family or Divorce Law.  Until the 1970’s, Michigan law required a person that had to get divorced to state a specific reason for the divorce, such as abuse or abandonment on the record.  If the person did not state a sufficient reason, the judge could deny the person a divorce.  This caused unnecessary embarrassment, humiliation and other more serious issues to innocent people that needed to get divorced. 

Abandonment or desertion, as it was technically called in Michigan, was repealed as a basis for divorce when Michigan instated the “No-Fault” rules for Divorce.  The statute repealing Abandonment or Desertion as a grounds for divorce in Michigan is MCL §552.9d, you may review this statute at http://legislature.mi.gov/doc.aspx?mcl-552-9d

Michigan no longer requires a person to state specific grounds for divorce.  Typically a person recites the phrase “there has been a breakdown of the marital relationship to the extent that the bonds of matrimony have been destroyed” and this is sufficient.  Desertion of a minor child is still a felony in Michigan however this really has no relation to the question as posed in relation to a divorce, where one party has moved or plans to move out of the house.  The felony non-support statute in Michigan is MCL §750.164, you may review this statute at http://legislature.mi.gov/doc.aspx?mcl-750-161.    

I do offer the following advice as an experienced litigator, attorney, divorce lawyer and compassionate human being to those who ask me the Abandonment question.

You should continue to pay the bills and support your children as you did during the marriage after you or your spouse move out of the home.  For example, if you each paid certain bills, you should continue to pay the bills for which you have been responsible.  Let your spouse know that you are paying those bills and you anticipate that they will continue to pay the other bills they have paid.  If each of you puts money into an account and the bills are paid out of that account, you should continue to do that absent another agreement however if you are not the party that has been in “control of the checkbook” then I highly suggest that you speak to your spouse about dividing up the bills and opening separate accounts, to allow yourself the ability to open your own bank account and have some control over your own finances.  There are many reasons that you should follow this strategy before you or spouse file for divorce if you can.

If you cannot pay your bills, that is an issue that you should discuss with a financial advisor, credit advisor or bankruptcy attorney, depending on the extent of the issue.  Who knows, getting your financial issues in order may help your marital issues and should certainly reduce the horrible stress and anxiety that you must be facing.

Source: Cameron Goulding
mi

5 Tips For Choosing the Right Advertising Agency: Dallas, TX

Searching for the right advertising agency in Dallas, TX to bring your organization to the next level? The Dallas/Fort Worth market is likely a hot market for your product or service, but choosing the right agency could make the difference between success and failure. Here are 5 tips for choosing the right advertising agency in Dallas, TX:

1. Pay attention to how well the agency strives to understand your business objectives:

The advertising agency you hire needs to prove to you that they are willing to take the time to understand your company’s goals and objectives. Many firms put on a good show upon the initial get-to-know-you meeting, asking a few routine questions about your company in order to land a project with you. However, once the project has commenced, most firms will quickly appear to lose interest, seeming more like a vendor than a partner. Over time, you will find yourself garnering less and less of their attention.

On the other hand, a good advertising agency will exhibit a genuine interest in your company. They will ask a series of strategic questions, making notes of key points worthy of further exploration. Once they have learned a good deal about you, they will refine their questions and begin making recommendations about your marketing and advertising direction. This “winning” type of agency will come forward with an overall strategic plan for you, rather than just a list of short-term, tactical projects.

2. Ask them to detail the process they will follow to identify and understand your best prospects:

Good advertising agencies know how to develop a sophisticated market segmentation strategy. Segmentation refers to the practice of profiling your company’s market into groups or clusters and then determining which of those groups are most likely to spend more money with you than the rest.

Developing a smart segmentation strategy is an integral part of a strong advertising campaign, and the agency you choose needs to be able to actively develop one for your firm. Bottom line: ask each of the candidate advertising agencies you are evaluating to describe in detail to how they plan to identify your best prospects.

3. Find out how they manage complex projects involving multiple media:

For larger ad campaigns involving multiple media channels (e.g., radio, TV, Internet, magazines, direct mail, etc.) most advertising agencies will be faced with outsourcing one or more of the project elements to outside vendors. A good agency knows how to differentiate between which items the agency can do exceptionally well itself and which items it needs to outsource to partners and vendors. The agency you choose needs to have a solid management system in place so that they can make sure all of the pieces fit together nicely for a given campaign. Ask your agency to describe how they handle large projects. If their answer is direct and detailed, you will know that they have thought through how to handle these projects.

4. Request samples of their creative work:

There are as many styles and types of creative work as there are designers (i.e., “creatives”). Just because an advertising agency is in “the business,” it doesn’t necessarily mean that you are going to resonate with the type of work they have done in the past. Ask to see a portfolio of their past work. Hint: make sure the portfolio is media-specific. That is, if you are looking to have them create a TV ad campaign on your behalf, don’t be satisfied if they merely give you samples of their past billboard or magazine ads. Reason: creative work that is appropriate for one type of medium is not necessarily appropriate for another.

When you are viewing their creative samples, ask yourself whether you feel an emotional, as well as a mental, connection with the work. Trust your instincts. If you don’t like what you see, ask for work by another designer on their team. Don’t be shy: part of making a campaign work requires that you, the client, believe in it yourself.

5. Ask them to explain their knowledge of the Dallas, TX media market:

When it comes to putting together a media campaign, you want an agency that knows your market intimately. In the case of a broadcast campaign for the Dallas, TX market (for example), you are going to want to select an ad agency that has relationships with all of the important radio and TV stations in town. These relationships will allow them to get you the best rates, as well as to negotiate “remotes and promos” (viz., value-adds or perks that you can sometimes receive for making radio buys). It is also important to know your campaign’s target audience well, which can be another advantage of choosing a local agency.

It will be to your benefit to take the time to choose the right advertising agency. Dallas is a great market – and you need an experienced, sophisticated agency that knows how to put together a winning advertising plan if you are going to conquer it.

Source: David Drewitz
tv

Hästens Beds Brings Sweet Dreams to Dallas

The ultimate exclusive bed, the Vividus makes its way to Dallas, TX.

Swedish bed maker Hästens Sanger opened its Hastens Dallas showroom in late October 2007, and recently extended their line by bringing in the ultimate dream bed, the Vividus. This internationally known, family owned company has marched to their own drummer for five generations, driven by a passion for making the finest and what are considered by many, the most comfortable beds in the world. The Vividus, Hastens top of the line bed, requires 160 hours to build.

Hastens, founded in 1852 as a saddle maker, has been making beds since 1917, and to this day, continues to hand-craft all of its beds in Sweden. With 156 years of tradition and knowledge, Hästens is all about turning an important night’s sleep into something other than a sweaty, stressful transport between the bedside lamp and the alarm clock. “Hästens” means “The Horses” and horsehair is the main component in the beds. Each strand of horsehair functions like a tube that transports oxygen, which helps regulate the temperature around the body and helps evaporate moisture, so one keeps dry while sleeping.

We’re really only now starting to understand how sleep is affecting our health, and it appears to be significant. A recent study conducted by Harvard Health Watch reported that there are many reasons to get a good night’s rest. The study showed that the quality of our sleep affects our immune system, our healing ability, our temper, our memory, our fitness and our learning ability. Metabolism, weight, hormones and the way our bodies store carbohydrates were also found to be affected by sleep.

Even our aging process slows down with enough sleep. You get fewer wrinkles and increase your chances for a long healthy life when sleeping well.

Moreover, people who are sleep-deprived have elevated levels of substances in the blood that indicate a heightened state of inflammation in the body, which has also recently emerged as a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes. As Dr. Sanjay R. Patel of Harvard Medical School points out: “Now we’re starting to get insights into what’s happening in the body when you don’t get enough sleep.”

Knowing how important a quality night’s sleep is and its impact, it’s surprising how little time and money is spent on this important piece of furniture. Most people probably invest more time and research buying a new sofa or TV than a bed.

Hästens beds are made of all natural materials. They are free from latex, plastic, foam rubber or polyurethane that makes the sleeper hot and sweaty, and they’re free of anything that could potentially release harmful chemicals. Instead you find clean horsehair, cotton, flax, wool and solid, slowly grown pine from the north of Sweden. Conscientious consumers appreciate not only a restful night that will give them a better quality day, but they also understand the value of choosing a product that is 100% bio-degradable, hypoallergenic and where craftsmanship and the high-quality materials have not been compromised. There are over 1000 Swedes still sleeping in Hästens beds that are over 50 years old, demonstrating that quality and fine natural materials go a long way.

Source: Archway Designs
tv

Watch The Texas Rangers Mlb Game Online

Although the eighth largest crowd in history attended opening day, I got to watch the Texas Rangers online for the start of the 2010 season. And as any Ranger fan will attest to, this was definitely a nail biter since Toronto Blue Jays starting pitcher Shaun Marcum had a no-hit bid running for six innings.

But I got to see Ranger great Vladimir Guerrero dash any of Marcum’s hopes when he hit a three-run homer in the seventh. The rallying Rangers were trailing by just a run in the bottom of the ninth when they accomplished crossing two over the plate for a 5-4 walk-off victory before more than 50,000 loyal fans on opening day at the Ballpark in Arlington.

Besides Guerrero’s heroics, a standing room only capacity crowd roared in utter glee when Jarrod Saltalamacchia tagged one with one out and the bases loaded into right-center field to drive in the winning run. He had the count at 2-2. He obviously got a slider that he liked and with the Blue Jays playing in, Saltalamacchia drove the ball well out of reach of anybody allowing David Murphy, pinch-running for Guerrero who had an infield hit earlier, to prance across the plate.

You could be watching all this action if you get a hold of this wonderful software I found. There is a version for either Mac or PC, so everyone will benefit by downloading it from the Internet. You can then easily install and easily operate it providing live streaming video online of any Rangers game that is televised. Your ticket for the best seat in the house is a high-speed Internet connection through either cable or DSL.

This is a fabulous feature for people who travel a bit. Install the software on your laptop so wherever you roam you can always watch some great Texas Ranger action as long as you have access to high-speed Internet.  Nowadays, this type of connection is found in many places including coffee shops, fast food restaurants, cafés and hotels.

Source: Wade Balton
tv

Business & Technology Crack – Does Business Drives Technology or Technology Drives Business?

Information Technology and the move to a computerized infrastructure model are bringing great changes to many industries. Often it is the CIO of the company who escort this fundamental shift in the business revenue stream. Leading others through modernization, revolutionize and transformation means you must be able to make changes yourself.

Forget about asking whether technology drives business or business drives technology. Stop perturbing about whether or not technology is strategic. Silence all the confusions about how advance this technology is to that technology. In technology, there are numerous questions that if you have to ask, you probably already know and don’t like the answer. A more satisfying line of inquiry is how much of your technological horsepower is actually being used to turn the wheels of innovation.

Some people says that Technology drives business modernization, novelty, success & Innovations that opens up new doors of opportunities, improves the company’s performance on the whole, sharpens the company’s market intelligence, and makes new things possible for the clients. Another school of thought is that the Business Drives Technology, as such integration is about assisting business to facilitate their profitability by utilizing technology and other resources available to the enterprise. But realistically speaking, the driving force comes from the CEO and CIO of the company, who both endeavor to leverage technology to its fullest potential.

In a society that has become entirely dependent on computers and immediate communications, technology is becoming the heartbeat in the process of office design as decisions on layout and services. Some aspects of technology, like the computer animation & communication, are highly visible demonstration devices. But more of it is in the largely unseen infrastructure, with the emphasis on sophisticated wiring and smart communication devices to provide for an ever greater flow, and on communications and power facilities to keep operations running through almost any anticipated calamity.

In the modernization of the today’s businesses, Common business drivers include; Mergers and Acquisitions, Internal Reorganizations, Application and System Consolidation, Inconsistent/Duplicated/Fragmented Data, New Business Strategies, Compliance with Government Regulations, Streamlining Business Processes. To achieve the success in the accommodation of these business drivers, the sturdy and smart input would be required from both the parties i.e. the business as well as the technology.

In a company, you could cover every surface in your office with how to manage change. But one aspect of change management that often dodges IT Managers is how to better influence corporate colleagues. If information technology drives business decisions, the IT executives must communicate and be persuasive with other department heads on key project management issues.

Strategic planning for Information Technology is one component of an overall company vision for success. This psychoanalysis facilitates IT professionals to successfully define short and long-term goals and ascertain the resources necessary to apprehend such goals. To ensure success, the strategic plan should be developed in a thorough but rapid manner, consist of a brief, succinct compilation of analyzed data, and provide opportunities by which additional planning and analysis can occur.

Several important benefits occur as the result of a successful strategic IT plan. First, employees are provided with an understanding of how their role fits in with the overall company structure. Also, this planning allows managers to realize additional opportunities for growth and success. Finally, important relationships between technology investment and positive outcomes, such as increased market share, are revealed.

It’s now become the industry dilemma that IT people need to know more about business. They need to understand the disciplines and the lingo of business process management, business performance management, customer relationship management, supply chain management, financial management, human resources management, operations management, etc. Lacking that knowledge, communication with business people and understanding of business requirements will forever be troubled.

On the other hand the Business people should also drive their efforts to know more about information technology. As with all communication and relationship issues, this is not a prejudiced problem. Just as IT people need to become more business-oriented, business people need to be more IT-oriented. They need to understand the roles and relationships among the many different kinds of technology upon which their information systems depend, and they need to understand the dependencies among those technologies. Business people need to have a working knowledge of the technology stack as it affects their capability to get information, perform business analysis, and make informed business decisions.

Beyond the relatively straight-forward needs of business becoming IT-oriented and technologists becoming business-oriented, there lies a new challenge. We must develop common understanding and shared perspective of value, an issue that is both a business concern and a technology consideration. When business and IT have different meaning and outlook for value, conflicts are certain to arise.

Business and IT organizations often have two evidently different perspectives of value. IT expert generally take a data-to-value approach. Where Data produces information, information enhances knowledge, knowledge drives action, action produces outcomes, and favorable outcomes deliver value. Business management typically uses a goals-to-value system. Business drivers and goals determine strategies, strategies drive tactics, which in turn produce results, and positive results produce value.

Effective business/IT relationships are ultimately a question of alignment. New IT skills, new business skills, and new perspectives that sets the stage for business/IT alignment. But it doesn’t assure alignment. To achieve genuine association there are several things that must be done; some by IT, some by the business, and some collectively.

Conflicts between business and IT organizations have existed from the very beginning of automated Information Systems. We have accelerated in so many ways both in business and in technology. However, the problem still pestilences most of the businesses. The Business/IT crack must go away. The cost is high; the value is null; and the barriers that it crafts grow bigger each moment. The problem can be fixed, and the time to fix it is now!

Source: Pervaiz Pyar Ali
technology

Television and Education

As the amount of time that children spend watching television (televisores) increases, so does the concern for how it affects their academic ability. Children are watching on average four hours of television a day, and extensive research is being made into the effects. However, there is currently no evidence suggesting that television (televisores) watching affects children`s performance in school in a negative manner. In fact, modern research has found that there is a positive correlation between television viewing of 10 hours per week and sustained academic results.

Television (televisores) can be a very useful academic tool, and has been used in the classroom for academic purposes since the 1970`s. The television programmes are used to assist children in various subject areas, and are used alongside other teaching materials, to give a well rounded approach to learning materials. This has proved successful as children prefer learning visually at a young age. In the past, few programmes were designed for this purpose. However, with the extent of research that has gone into children`s television (televisores) and the input of governing bodies such as the U.S. Federal Trade Commission and the Federal Communications Commission, this attitude has changed.

Research into the effects of television (televisores) on children`s behaviour and performance has been in place since the 1950`s. However, with the formation of the Action for Children`s Television society in 1970, the research has been extensive and covering a variety of areas. The importance of the content of children`s television has created governing bodies on each television network to make sure they are fulfilling their public responsibility. The research is weighted against product demand, current issues and education, and aims to make sure that all characters are good role models. This includes removing stereotyping and encouraging social tolerance.

As a result, regular television (televisores) now consistently shows programmes of an educational nature. These programmes can easily be found on channels such as national geographic, discovery, and the learning channel, as well as on general stations worldwide. It was the well known children`s television programme Sesame Street that was first broadcast in 1969 that changed the face of educational TV for children. It showed that children do not only learn through informative documentary style programmes but that they learn skills by modelling positive behaviours on television.

Research has found that repetition is central to a child`s education, and this applies to educational television viewing also. It states that reruns are useful as they create recognisable characters and situations which help children to learn about cause and effect, sequencing and also improve their understanding of people and the world around them. Children`s television programmes are repeated up to four times a year to maximise the potential, though of course, this also assists with costs.

Another useful feature of television is that it tackles difficult questions in the areas of morality and ethics. Through the medium of television (televisores), children are exposed to ideas and made aware of cultures that they can not necessarily experience for themselves. Television also assists with topics that are tricky to approach such as bereavement and bullying. As the subject is raised outside of the child`s environment, then it can be easier for them to discuss and deliberate over these subjects, particularly if they are relevant to their own experiences. Television is a popular medium of choice for conveying such ideas in classrooms around the world.

A final point to consider is that television (televisores) is a visually stimulating medium and is of interest to children. Therefore, it can be used to assist reluctant learners by creating interest and removing pressure that can accompany traditional learning techniques.

Television (televisores) is a useful educational tool if used correctly and in moderation. Television can assist with academic learning and also their social and emotional development. Although more research is needed, it is the attitude towards television and its uses that creates a successful environment in which children can learn.

This article is under GNU FDL license and can be distributed without any previous authorization from the author. However the author’s name and all the URLs (links) mentioned in the article and biography must be kept.

Source: Roberto Sedycias
tv

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH LAW

        SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH LAW

The intellectual thinking of man, since time immemorial, has resulted in the development of science and technology. The principles of science and technology have developed in response to differing objects of interest. Science and technology have had a great impact on the way we live. Law has tried to regulate the use and abuse of science and the extent of its application. The major question however is whether we are well equipped with the laws to regulate the use of such technologies.

The subject Law, Science and Technology is of great relevance today when Courts have become ”activists” and there has been a tremendous advance in science and technology. The need for sharpening the evidentiary techniques employed in Courts with the help of science and technology cannot be denied. At the same time, one has to be conscious of the limitations. The limitations of both science and the law and the need for both to join hands to strengthen the court-systems by legally admissible scientific evidence must be considered.

MEANING AND DEFINITIONS

v SCIENCE

The word “Science” comes from the Latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge” or “knowing”. According to Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, the definition of science is “knowledge attained through study or practice,” or “knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method [and] concerned with the physical world.”

In other words, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena. The term science also refers to the organized body of knowledge that people have gained using that system. Less formally, the word science often describes any systematic field of study or the knowledge gained from it. Perhaps the most general description is that the purpose of science is to produce useful models of reality. Most scientific investigations use some form of the scientific method. Science as defined above is sometimes called pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of research to human needs. Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

-Natural sciences, the study of the natural world, and

-Social sciences, the systematic study of human behavior and society.

v TECHNOLOGY

The word “technology” comes from the Greek word technologia, which means the systematic treatment of an art, form or skill or a manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes, methods or knowledge. In other words, the term technology refers to the application of science, especially to commercial or industrial objects.

v LAW

A rule of conduct established and enforced by the authority, legislation, or custom of a given community, State, or nation. In essence, law is the tangible and intangible context that links individuals to the community. In addition, it defines responsibilities of individuals to society as much as it defines and protects individual rights. In short, it is a pillar of good governance.

INTER-RELATIONSHIP OF SCIENCE AND LAW

Today”s high technology society forces the two professions (law and science) to interact in a wide array of cases. Legal disputes involving patents, product liability, environmental torts, regulatory proceedings and criminal cases are some fields of such interaction. Further, law and science encounter each other in the laboratory through a number of actions governing intellectual property, research misconduct, etc. The fact-finding agendas of the two disciplines have frequently begun to overlap, if not merge. Because there is a general lack of understanding of each culture, these interactions often lead to a cognitive friction that is both disturbing and costly to the society. Scientists are distrustful of the lawyers and legal proceedings and prefer not to venture into the courtroom. The scientific community that believes that its methods and procedures are above legal scrutiny and questioning often frustrates lawyers. Lawyers and scientists seldom speak the same language. Each should develop a better understanding of the principles and methods of the other”s profession. Bridging the gap between the two cultures is a challenge that this conference seeks to address.

Science and technology seek knowledge through an open-ended search for expanded understanding, whose truths are subject to revision. Law, too, conducts an open-ended search for expanded understanding; however, it demands definite findings of fact at given points in time. The meeting of these two disciplines in the courtroom magnifies the differences between the two cultures. Even the search of truth does not serve the same aims and may not be subject to the same constraints and requirements.

The Courts today deal with complex cases relating to highly sophisticated crimes where criminals take care to erase all evidence of their involvement. In such cases, modernized, scientific and highly sophisticated methods are required to trace the involvement of criminals. A report published in the New York Times (August 7, 2008) stated that with a new analytical technique, a fingerprint can reveal much more than the identity of a person. It can also identify what the person has been touching: drugs, explosives or poisons, for example. Such a laboratory technique can have a wider application in crime investigation. The chemical signature could also help crime investigators trace out one fingerprint out of the smudges of many overlapping prints if the person had been exposed to a specific chemical.

Then there are serious cases of medical negligence and related torts where rival parties seek to rely on expert evidence. Even in the field of environmental pollution involving toxic substances, there is serious difficulty in finding out the levels of danger, the extent of actual and latent damage to humans and environment, and there are uncertainties in accepting the technology installed by the polluter to conform to environmental standards. In some civil cases where handwriting, forgery, or paternity issues are involved there is extensive use of scientific techniques. The Courts are thus dependent and, in fact, compelled to analyse evidence of experts examined on each side. There is again the difficulty of evaluating the conflicting expert evidence adduced by the contesting parties in an adversarial judicial process. However, none can deny that expert witnesses retained by parties often are partisan. In such cases, the technique of “Hot Tubbing” must be embraced. The Australians discovered the technique of “Hot Tubbing” to improve expert evidence. In this procedure, also called concurrent evidence, parties still choose experts, but they testify together at trial-discussing the case, asking each other questions, responding to inquiries from the judge and the lawyers, finding common ground and sharpening the open issues. According to UCLA law professor Jennifer Mnookin, “‘Hot Tubbing is much more interesting than neutral experts.”

DEVELOPMENTS TILL DATE AND THE RECENT TREND

In this era of genomics, of crime prevention and of conviction the following questions need special attention:

  1. Is the legal profession ready for this new information?
  1. How would these techniques benefit the justice delivery system?
  1. Is our society ready for the implications that genomics brings to every facet of our lives?
  1. Is our society struggling with the ethical and social issues thrown up by the new biology such as human cloning, use of animals in biomedical research, etc.?
  1. With the rapid progress in science, are laws in their present form really able to deliver justice efficiently or is some rethinking in the form of new laws or amendments to existing laws required?

Before any major changes can be effected, all stakeholders have to sit together and look for the answers to these unsolved problems. This contact which was missing in India became a reality when the first ever conference of this kind was held. This conference, who”s Chairman was the erstwhile President of India; Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam formed the basis of the ”Hyderabad Declaration on Impact of New Biology on Justice Delivery System”. These deliberations of law were co-organised by the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) and NALSAR University of law. The deliberations brought together the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, representatives from various Commissions like the Law Commission and the Human Rights Commission, Directors of the National Law Schools and other legal luminaries, lawyers, scientists, doctors, bio-industrialists, NGO”s, police investigators, journalists and a couple of participants from abroad. Inter alia the meeting emphasized the following:

  • To establish a Human Genetics Commission to provide technical and strategic advice about the current and emerging issues in Human Genetics, and a consultative mechanism for development oh National Genetics Policy and guidelines in that area;
  • To establish an Ethics Committee to assess ethical, legal and social issues raised by research on human genome and use of DNA databases;
  • To statutorily define status of human embryo so that research on embryonic cells is done under statutory control and regulations;
  • To devise a mechanism to establish links with the International Community of Dispute for resolution of new issues in new biology;
  • To suitably amend the Patents law to strike a fair balance between public and private interests in case of patents that assert property rights over genetic material.

 

IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON INVESTIGATION

Science is a compelling and commanding weapon in the armoury of administration of justice. Forensic Science is a science pertaining to law. In particular, it works as the branch, which is used mainly in criminal investigation and findings of which can lead to arrests and convictions. Undoubtedly, scientific investigations generate evidence in favour of the victims and against the accused. Forensic Science helps in providing the identity of the culprit or the accused who willingly or unwillingly, in most of the cases, leaves the mark of his crime, thereby making the job of the investigator much easier in proving the culpability with the aid of Forensic Science.

Forensic Science provides scientific study for investigation of crime. The growth, development and use of Forensic Science in detection of crime in developed countries are tremendous and increasing with new techniques. The area of Forensic Science in India has not been properly looked into, as it ought to have been and more so when the average acquittal rate is alarmingly high. Therefore, in our country, also, the necessity and importance of Forensic Science hardly needs any emphasis. The lack of understanding and appreciation of the importance of specialists in general, by non-specialists, in all fields, cannot be denied. The field of Forensic Science is no exception. Many a time, neither the judge, nor the lawyer nor even the police appreciate fully, the advances or the extensive, promising potentialities of the science and the fusion of new technologies, methodologies, modalities and research. Multitask and multi-professional nature of Forensic Science needs an inter-professional approach, which is, many a time, lacking. Therefore, sincere and serious efforts are required to be made to eliminate personal and professional bias of the involved personnel and professionals.

Forensic Science in criminal investigation and trial is principally concerned with materials and circuitously through materials, with men, places and time. It embraces all branches of science and applies them to the purposes of law. The scientific examination by Forensic Scientists adjoins a missing link or strengthens a weak chain of investigation.

Systematic uses of Forensic Science provide significant assistance in answering the following questions:

(i) How was the crime committed?

(ii) When was the crime committed?

(iii) Who committed the crime?

Law-enforcement agencies refer to Forensic Experts to help solve mysterious situations concerning human life and thereby, provide help and useful contribution to the criminal courts in the journey for search of truth in criminal trials. Forensic Science deals with various aspects, including routine post-mortem to sophisticated tracking piece like DNA analysis.

Unfortunately, techniques and methodology with necessary materials used extensively in Western countries has not successfully clicked in India because of a variety of reasons, the major one being the investment of huge finance. This science is also, at times, useful in finding out the truth in some of the civil cases.

The prosecution mainly calls Forensic Scientists as expert witnesses. The practice of the defense producing Forensic Scientists or the courts consulting on their own listed experts is not very much in vogue. In fact, there is an acute need to bridge the communication gap that presently exists between lawyers, judges and Forensic Scientists. An independent analysis and evaluation of the scientist”s data and any subsequent testimony that may follow again depends on the judges” familiarity and understanding of the principles of Forensic Science.

In Western countries DNA test and profile is widely employed. In a country like ours, the need of such a test and profile may, hardly, be emphasized. In many developed countries, DNA test, genetic testing techniques and “racmization” — testing based on systematic examination of teeth and bite-marks has proved to be very useful. “Racmization” technique is currently used in Japan and Germany. It has potential to replace the traditional method that took into account the eruption and/or fusion and falling sequence of teeth. A fusion of such knowledge of Forensic Science and newly developed techniques will, undoubtedly, not only provide proper perspective and dimensions, but will also lead to detection of crime, and be a great help in search of the truth. It will be useful in the prevention and control of crimes and will provide required assistance to the parties to civil disputes, as well.

IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON THE JUSTICE DELIVERY SYSTEM

Common view is that the Indian justice administration system is slow. However, the major question is, is it the primary problem with Indian justice delivery system? The key issue is, is it is delivering justice at all in majority of cases? If a machine is faulty and makes bad products, then if one speeds up the machine, it will deliver more of those bad products. Therefore, if we speed up a malfunctioning Justice Administration System, it will simply toss up more of injustice. Is that the goal of any justice delivery system?

In the words of Justice Shayamal Kumar Sen, “The investigation process needs to be hastened; otherwise the criminal justice system will suffer”.

Justice Sen urged that research and development should be initiated in a way that would ensure that crime at the grassroots level is detected immediately and an effective management system should be introduced.

According to M P Singh, vice-chancellor, West Bengal National University Of Juridical Science, new techniques should be introduced as it will help in crime detection and the infrastructure should be developed in a way that will not only give momentum to effective criminal delivery system but will also hasten the entire long drawn process of investigation.

IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON COURT AND COURT PROCESSES

Science is not new to the Indian courts. Towards the end of 1989, one low-end computer was installed in Supreme Court of India for caveat matching. Immediately thereafter, in 1990, Justice GC Bharuka, as a sitting Judge at the Patna High Court initiated the process of court computerization. On his transfer to Karnataka in 1994, he undertook to introduce ICT (Information and Communucation Tecnologies) in the entire judiciary of the state of Karnataka.

Presently all the courts upto the taluka level are computerized. All the judicial officers and court staff are trained. There is complete automation from filing of a case to grant of a certified copy. Digital production of under-trial prisoners by video-conferencing is made possible. Through website, causelists of the Supreme Court of India, High Courts, district courts and various Tribunals is made available online, a day before.

SCIENCE AND GREY AREAS OF LAWS

v SPACE LAWS

Simply put, Space law is a part of International jurisprudence related to outer space. It follows customary practice in defining outer space, the region 100 km beyond the earth”s surface.

With the advancement of science and technology, things that were once considered impossible are now increasingly becoming possible and even fashionable. No one, some six decades back would have thought of going to space, let alone marrying in space. Thanks to science, this has now become a reality. For $2.3 million, a person can cement bonds from 62 miles straight up. Japanese company First Advantage, along with former X-Prize contender Rocketplane Global, is teaming up to offer weddings in space.

According to a LiveScience article, Rocketplane Global “is developing the XP Spaceplane for private suborbital spaceflights. The four-seat spaceship is slated to be about the size of a fighter jet and designed to carry two jet engines and a rocket engine to reach space.”

Besides shelling out $2.3 million, a person has to undergo four day”s worth of training for the one-hour ceremony. Training includes safety procedures, weightless maneuvering, and to explain to one”s family why they were not invited.

Not only this, Sapporo Breweries, the Japanese beer maker established in 1876, is brewing beer from barley descended from seeds that spent five months on the International Space Station ( ISS).

According to a CNN article, “The project is part of biological studies of the adaptability of plants to environmental changes and the impact from stresses such as space travel.”

If successful, the study will bring the world one-step closer to growing crops in space. In addition, fortunately, right now, scientists cannot tell the difference between the ISS grains and homegrown barley.

However, in order for commercial space activities to grow, there must be an attractive legal environment. Unfortunately existing space law consists mostly of some inter-governmental treaties that are quite inappropriate for business.

Space is just another place where humans are going to live. In addition, because space is almost limitless humans are going to live there in vast numbers in the future. In other words, it will become a completely new habitat. Today most activities in space are government ones because getting to and from space is so expensive. Once travel from orbit is cheap enough, as on earth, individuals, private companies and organizations will carry on most activities in space. At that time space activities will involve almost every industry, be it catering and drinks, fashion and entertainment, or law.

An attractive legal environment is needed to enable operating companies to plan passenger services and place orders for the vehicles that they require, and for manufacturers to finalize vehicle design details and raise the investment that they need in order to put the vehicles into production.

Sovereignty over outer space is another debatable issue that needs to be resolved.

CYBER LAWS AND JURISDICTIONAL ISSUES

With the advent of internet, a whole new category of crime that includes fraud, theft of services and data, copyright infringement, destruction of data through computer sabotage (viruses) and acts causing inconvenience to agencies comprising sensitive, secret or confidential functions has come up. Chances of use of the web as a forum for publication of defamatory content has increased multifold and there is a need for a clear, coherent expression of the law in this area.

Hacking time theft (stealing someone else”s internet time) pornography, sending threatening e-mail, defamatory e-mail, hacking e-mail, e-mail bombs, etc. are the main areas of cyber crime.

The people who commit cyber crimes are mostly those who have white-collar jobs, unlike usual criminals. They can even be high school kids. The territory that a cyber crime can stretch across is immense. It can go over continents

The principles that govern the exercise of criminal jurisdiction are based on the assumption that “crime” is a territorial phenomenon. Cyber crime makes these principles problematic in varying ways and in varying degrees. Unlike real-world crime, it is not physically grounded; it increasingly tends not to occur in a single sovereign territory.

The perpetrator of a cyber crime may physically be in Country A, while his victim is in Country B, or his victims are in Countries B, C, and D and so on. The perpetrator may further complicate matters by routing his attack on the victim in Country B through computers in Countries F and G. The result of these and other cyber crime scenarios is that the cyber crime is not committed “in” the territory of a single sovereign state; instead, “pieces” of the cyber crime occur in territory claimed by several different sovereigns.

Cyber crime is a primary example of cross-border crime, and so, it raises the issue of jurisdiction. This is a tricky issue. Acts on the Internet that are legal in the state where they are initiated may be illegal in other states, even though the act is not particularly targeted at that state. Jurisdiction conflicts abound, both negative (no state claims jurisdiction) and positive (several states claim jurisdiction at the same time). Above all, it is unclear just what constitutes jurisdiction: is it the place of the act, the country of residence of the perpetrator, the location of the effect, or the nationality of the owner of the computer that is under attack? Or all of these at once? It turns out that countries think quite differently on this issue. The cyber crime statutes of numerous countries show varying and diverging jurisdiction clauses. Since internet allows transactions between persons of various jurisdictions, an international agreement (to be crystallized into a convention, later) is required for any regulation. However, in arriving at a uniform law, varying standards adopted by jurisdictions across the world and the point of balance adopted by them have to be kept in mind.

Jurisdiction is a highly debatable issue as to the maintainability of any suit that has been filed. Today with the growing arms of cyberspace the territorial boundaries seems to vanish thus the concept of territorial jurisdiction as envisaged under S.16 of C.P.C. and S.2.of the I.P.C. will have to give way to alternative method of dispute resolution.

In addressing the issues of what problems were posed by cyber-crime, Mr. Corell noted that the scope of international cooperation is limited by international agreements and by the national law of the State from which information has been requested. There are also differing priorities between developed and developing countries. These differences complicate international cooperation and expand the gap between the two groups.

There is no authoritative, comprehensive elaboration of the principle of universal jurisdiction concerning cyber-crime, he said. There are different views concerning the offences that constitute crimes under international law that are subject to universal jurisdiction. There are also different opinions with respect to the significance of the obligation to prosecute or extradite, as contained in various treaties, as evidence of universal jurisdiction. Whether States are not only permitted, but also required, to exercise jurisdiction with respect to crimes under international law, is also subject to different opinions.

CONCLUSION

The magnetism of science has always captivated members of the legal profession. People look up to science to rescue them from the experience of uncertainty and the discomfort of difficult legal decisions, and are constantly disappointed.

The notion of what constitutes science and what it would take to make law more scientific varies across time. What does not vary is our constant return to the well. We are constantly seduced into believing that some new science will provide an answer to laws dilemmas, and we are constantly disappointed.

In the words of Senior Advocate K.T.S. Tulsi — “There is no doubt that [science] is going to overtake the law enforcement agencies by storm. No one will be able to avoid it. It is like standing on the shore and asking the waves of the sea not to come. What is required is a proper debate about the real value of [science] and whether it fits into the overall picture and what use could be made of it by the investigators.”

REFERENCES

v BOOKS AND ARTICLES

  1. A Convergence of Science and Law. A Summary Report of the First Meeting of the Science, Technology and Law Panel: National Research Council.
  2. Science and law blog: August 8, 2008. Fingerprints” Chemical “Footprints”?
  3. Science and law blog: August 11, 2008. “Hot Tubbing”: Old wine in New Bottles for Expert Witnesses.
  4. The New York Times: August 7, 2008, Kenneth Chang.
  5. Law, science and technology collaboration: Justice M. Jugannadha Rao-Chairman Law Commission of India.
  6. Kolkata Newsline, Thursday, February 01, 2007.
  7. A profile of forensic science in juristic journey: Justice Jitendra N. Bhatt.
  8. Do space laws need to be modified? S Bhatt
  9. Space weddings. I do. I really do. Carol Pinchefsky, 7 July 2008.
  10. Tara Blake Garfinkel, Jurisdiction Over Communication Torts: Can You Be Pulled into Another Country’s Court System for Making a Defamatory Statement Over the Internet? A Comparison of English and US Law, 9 Transnat’l Law 489, 492
  11. Bryan P. Werley, Aussie Rules: Universal Jurisdiction over Internet Defamation, 18 Temp. Int’l & Comp. L.J. 199, 219
  12. Para 1.16 of the British Law Commission Report on Defamation and the Internet, cited from (visited on 7th August, 2004
  13. 1996 US Dist LEXIS 8435 (SDNY 19 June, 1996), cited from R. Matthan: The Law Relating to Computers & the Internet, p. 2 (New Delhi: Butterworths, 2000). In this case, the defendant was an Italian, who had, using an Italian server, set up a website, under the name “Playmen”. The court had earlier issued a permanent injunction against the defendant from using that name in any magazine sold, published or distributed in USA. The court accepted that it could not order the website to be shut down as that would amount to asserting that every court in the world had jurisdiction over all information providers on the internet
  14. In info age, time for cyber savvy cops. Uma Karve. October 5, 2002.
  15. Learning the law, Indian Express. Karina Sudarsan
  16. Beware! Cyber Criminals are on the prowl, Navhind Times,March 17, 2002; by Shaikh Jamaluddin.
  17. 10 Myths of Electronic Security, Banking Frontiers September, 2002; Rohas Nagpal, Asian School of Cyber Laws.
  18. I”ll be watching you! Times of India, December 19, 2002; Zahra Khan, Times News Network.
  19. Approaches to Cybercrime Jurisdiction; Susan W. Brenner, University of Dayton – School of Law, Bert-Jaap Koops Tilburg University – Faculty of Law (TILT).
  20. Challenge of borderless ”Cyber Crime” to International Efforts to Combat Transnational Organized Crime Discussed at Symposium, 14 December, 2000.
  21. Towards Speedy, Inexpensive, Transparent and Accountable Justice; Justice GC Bharuka, 4th November, 2007.

source : www.thinklegal.co.in (ThinkLegal Resources Pvt Ltd)

           

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