2 Common Mistakes Singapore JC Students Make in GCE ‘A’ Level Economics Exams

In most GCE ‘A’ Level Examinations, 5 exam skills are commonly tested. Let’s begin by recalling these 5 skills:

 – knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation.

The MOST IMPT is analysis! Wouldn’t you agree that you can write nothing on evaluation and still get A?

Well, If you haven’t realised, all the case study and essays questions that you always make you feel uncomfortable, perspiring, suffocating, are questions of highly analytical nature.

And that’s where the 2 common mistakes arise.

MISTAKE NO. 1: Failure to identify the correct analysis required

Here’s something useful right away: the paper tests 5 skills: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation.

The most difficult is ANALYSIS. And here’s the solution: Analysis requires you to be very detailed and thorough. All you need to do is to be thorough in your explanation of the key concepts in question

Let me illustrate:

NJC 2008 Prelim Section A, Q1(c):
“Using economic analysis, discuss the possible impact on the macroeconomy of UAE, as a result of persistent increases in the price of oil worldwide.” [6]

Let me think aloud here: the command word here is discuss, so I’ll reserve 2m for evaluation. So left 4m for analysis. So identify 2 points to analyse will do. The phrase “using economic analysis’ almost always suggest that you cannot extract the idea from the case, and so you’ll have to recall and brainstorm from your 2 years of learning.

So I’ll need 2 macro impacts. And obviously NEGATIVE impacts, since oil price goes up.

How to think of possible impacts? Simple. Just think in terms of the Macroeconomic Objectives of the government. Out of the 4 objectives, you’ll have to pick your 2 that you can explain the best.

For eg, I choose to tackle (i) inflation and (ii) unemployment.

Oil price leads to inflation. Now saying is not enough, coz there is almost NO ANALYSIS demonstrated. So you’ll have to very detailed. And S’pore context requires you to apply…

{S’pore being heavily reliant on trade, imports practically everything, from goods for consumption and also goods that are used in production. Thus, imported inflation is severe for S’pore, as oil price will drive the price of imports upwards.}

That’s your 2 marks. Easy right?

(Note: On our website, members’ section only, we have full answers to the essay and case studies for every JC, MI and IB Schools. If you wish to have access, just sign in here

MISTAKE NO. 2: Failure to provide relevant evaluation that stems from the analysis.

Now this is surprisingly the easier part of the 2. Yet many students still admit they are largely clueless about demonstrating evaluation skills.

In a nutshell, what you aim to evaluate and to sound “balanced”, has to stem from your earlier analysis.

Otherwise, the evaluation is of lower quality and may yield no marks.

Obviously, this skill is best demonstrated with an example. In our Economics Exam Skills Intensive Workshops, we are very thorough in imparting these high scoring exam skills to all our students.

by Adam Smith Economics Tuition Agency

Source: Jack Tan
mi 6 price


Michigan Photo Booth Cost

Photo booth rentals have been growing in popularity since they were first available for rental about a decade ago. We know that having a photo booth at your event will provide numerous positive enhancements to the overall experience of your event. The main question you probably have is how can I afford renting a photo booth or how much does a Michigan photo booth cost? You’ll most likely be surprised to discover that renting a photo booth is something that you can afford.

Michigan Photo Booth Cost

When looking for photo booth rental companies make sure to look over all the different packages that they offer. Chances are that the rental company will have a package which suits your event just right. Some companies offer different types of photo booths for rental. Their classic (first generation) booth generally cost more to operate and thus have a higher cost for rental. These first generation booths may also have additional requirements of your venue due to their bulkiness and their greater weight. This type of booth will most likely cost between $900 and $1500 for its rental for four hours. The newer (digital) booths are easier to maintain and in turn their rentals are less expensive than the classic booths. You also don’t need to worry about the digital booths easily fitting into your venue because these booths weigh considerably less and are far less bulky than the classic style booths. For a digital booth you can expect anywhere from $650-$895 for the same time frame with most companies. The more reputable companies are competitively prices due to high demand in the market. Then again, they also have the coolest booths in market.

Like buying anything thing else you need to be careful of the fine print when breaking down the photo booth rental cost. Some companies charge additional fees for their services or have different ideas of what is included in your rental period. Your photo booth company should never try to charge for delivery (if it is a local event) or count the set-up/tear down of the booth as part of the contracted hours to be worked. Now while you may think you got a deal on a 4hr booth rental today, just how much of a deal is it really gonna be when they use the first hour to set-up and the last to tear down. Now you thought you were paying for 4hrs of photos, but all you ended up with was two hours of photos and a live show of an attendant assembling then disassembling your booth. The rental company should provide you with the amount of time you have paid for and do the setup/ tear down outside of that time. The standard photo booth rental should also include an photo booth specialist to set up and dismantle the booth. This attendant should also be expected to be present throughout your event. If any issues arise he/she can fix the problem very quickly. Your guests will most likely have a couple of questions for the photo booth attendant to answer. The attendant being present also further assures that your guests will have a great time at your event.

Regarding overall price for the photo booth rental, many vendors offer discounts for the slower season (winter months) and for weekday rentals. Just ask your photo booth company if they have any current specials or discounts which you qualify for. After all, it never hurts to ask.

Source: Robert Reno
mi price

Real Estate Investors – The Time to Invest in Detroit and Southeast Michigan Real Estate is Now

With the burst of the housing bubble, home prices have fallen dramatically and Michigan has been one of the hardest hit markets in the United States. This might just make Michigan one of the best markets to invest in right now.

It’s no secret that the struggling automotive industry has caused widespread job losses throughout Michigan, and as a result, foreclosures have driven Michigan housing prices down more than 60% since 2006.  According to Realty Trac, foreclosures account for 33% of Michigan’s home sales through the 2nd quarter of 2010, and this trend is expected to continue through 2011. For real estate investors these foreclosures represent an excellent opportunity to purchase property at a steep discount.

The Michigan economy is not out of the water just yet, but there are some very encouraging signs indicating that things may be turning the corner.

1. Detroit‘s Automakers Are All Producing Profits

It is no secret that Michigan’s economy is heavily tied to the automotive industry. In recent years, the automakers have struggled tremendously, but the restructuring is starting to take hold. In the 2nd quarter of 2010 all three of Detroit’s automakers were in the black posting the following profits: 

  • Ford – $2.6 Billion 
  • General Motors $1.3 Billion
  • Chrysler – $183 Million 

This is welcomed news for the Michigan job market as these profits have already resulted in renewed investments into Michigan’s economy. The Michigan Economic Development Corporation reports that 17 of the world’s leading electric battery companies are investing $5.8 Billion into Michigan. This includes a $43 million investment by General Motors for a new plant that will manufacture the batteries for the Chevy Volt – the automotive industry’s first fully electric vehicle. These investments are expected to create approximately 63,000 jobs.

2. The State of Michigan Has Provided a 42% Tax Credit to Film Makers

In April 2008, the state of Michigan announced a 42% tax credit for film makers that produce films using Michigan workers. This has spurred a flurry of film making activity. Before the incentive, Michigan averaged five film productions annually. In 2008 thirty-one films were produced, and in 2009 thirty-five films were produced. This trend is expected to continue with the announcement of 3 major studios to be built in Pontiac, Detroit, and Grand Rapids. These studios alone are expected to bring 6500 permanent jobs to Michigan.

3. Investment in Renewable Wind Energy

Because of Michigan’s vast coastlines along the great lakes, the wind potential is phenomenal. Michigan has enacted the Renewable Portfolio Standard which requires 10% of the state’s energy demand to come from renewable resources by 2015. This standard is sure to drive investment into renewable energy resources in Michigan.

The Time to Invest in Michigan Is Now

All of this economic activity is sure to result in the appreciation of Michigan’s deflated housing prices. In fact, Yahoo Real Estate is projecting that the Southeast Michigan real estate market will appreciate by 33.1% by 2014!

For investors, the time to invest in Michigan real estate is now. Fortunately, investors do not need to live in Michigan to participate in this market.  Companies like Michigan Turnkey Investments are setting up cashflowing turnkey investment properties for out-of-state investors. These properties are solid investments that boast returns from cashflow in the range between 13% – 20% annually.  With these kind of returns and the prospect of heavy property appreciation, it’s a no-brainer – the time to invest in Michigan real estate is now.

Source: Todd Brittingham
mi 6 price

Build a flatbed truck out of wood

Flatbed trucks are really gaining popularity, mostly within the farming community.  Precisely a flatbed that is made from wood is very convenient; it is inexpensive, and is able to last longer then steel truck bed.  

Another good thing is that wood flatbed can be designed by you, rather than paying high prices for an expensive, premade steel flatbed and also you can adapt it according to your needs, you can give a personal touch while saving you money.  Also here is not about truck games so a recommendation is to be patient and careful while doing all things.

Before you start you should supply some required things.  You will need a circular saw, lumber – 4- by- 4 inch and 2- by- 6 inch, lag bolts and nuts, wrench set, small square, drill and a drill bit and a pencil.

First you should measure and cut the foundation.  Lay three 4- by- 4 inch pieces of lumber across the width of the truck frame.  After that, using your pencil and square, mark the desired length and when this is done, cut the lumber to length.

Floorboards should be also cut to length so measure the 2- by- 6 inch lumber against the length of the truck frame, and then mark and cut it.  Each peace should be measured and marked individually to be sure that has the correct length.

Model the flatbed, starting by laying the 4- by- 4 inch lumber across the frame of the truck.  One at the front and back and one across the middle, parallel to one another.  The 2- by-6 inch lumber should be placed on top of and it should be perpendicular to this foundation, each peace should lay flat, side by side, until the whole area is covered.  When you place all the pieces, check your work. Maybe you’ll be in a need of adjusting the length or width of any of the boards.  Mark the extra peaces and cut them.

Next step is installing the foundation.  When you are done with the final adaptations, remove the 2- by- 6 inch floorboards.  You must be sure that the three pieces of 4- by- 4 inch lumber are placed as it was described in the previous step.  After that, drill through both ends of each piece of 4- by- 4 inch lumber into and through the frame of the truck.  In each hole from the top should be placed a lag bolt.  Thread a nut onto the bolt from the bottom and tight it with a wrench.

The final step is the floor.  All of yours 2- by- 6 inch floorboards should be laid in a place.  Drill a hole through the centre of the floorboard into and through the underlying foundation, on the place where each floorboard intersects a foundation board.  Make a three drill holes for each floorboard and place a lag bolt in each hole from the top.  Last step is to thread a nut onto each bolt from the bottom, and tighten with a wrench.

Source: Marina Janakievska
mi 6 price

Crawford Trucks now offers the Jerr-Dan XLP Shark

Jerr-Dan tow trucks recently announced the introduction of the much anticipated XLP-6 Series of low profile carriers. This new series of carriers is designed to address the demand from professional towing and recovery operators for a high quality, low profile and low load angle carrier by your premier tow truck sales dealer.

The XLP-6 series is available with 21′ and 22′ steel and aluminum decks, including dual angle “shark models.  All XLP-6 models include a low profile sub-frame that lowers the deck height to approximately 8 3/4” above the frame rail and provides greatly improved angles.

When installed on a chassis with a 32″ deck height, a “conventional” deck produces a load angle of 10.5 degrees, while a dual angle deck has a load angle of less than 8 degrees.

Unlike other low profile carriers on the market, the XLP-6 requires no additional chassis modifications.  All components are above or outside the frame rails, so there is no need to relocate suspension components or chassis cross members.

The XLP-6 is suitable for air ride or spring ride chassis, however, for optimum load angles, an air ride chassis with a dump valve is recommended.

XLP-6 Low Profile Car Carrier Jerr-Dan Tow Truck  Features include:

– A 12,000 lb. deck capacity  and they can be equipped with a new 3,500-lb. wheel- lift.

– Jerr-Dan’s industry leading nylon carrier tracking system for hoses and wiring harness.

– No- Lube pivot joints and slide pads, and an automotive weather- resistant wiring harness.

– Steel decks constructed using roll-formed rubrics provide twice the strength of traditional angle iron rails.

– Standard 102″ wide decks feature 10- gauge 50 KSI diamond decking for strength and good looks.

-Standard 102″ wide decks feature 6″ x 2″ High Corrosion resistant cross members spaced 6″ apart

– Aluminum models are constructed using interlocking aluminum extrusion decking and Jerr-Dan’s exclusive Galvanized Steel    Beam main deck beams.

Source: Crawfordtrucksales
mi 6 price

Wedding Djs In Michigan: Tips On Hiring The Right One

Congratulations on your engagement, it is now time to interview the different wedding DJs in Michigan! You may be a little overwhelmed with the options and probably do not know where to start looking for a professional entertainer, but here are a couple of things to keep in mind when interviewing disc jockey companies.

1.) The Reputation and References

Some DJs in Michigan perform as full-time professionals, most work part-time and probably will not be as committed to your wedding reception. Make sure you can view or contact several references from previous clients from within the last year. You will be able to find out if the entertainer is dedicated to your day before you trust them with to much responsibility.

2.) Will You Get More with others or LESS?

The basic stereotype for wedding DJs in Michigan is that they only play music. Some companies do more than just play music, but ask yourself out loud.

Who will be responsible for my wedding coordination and other important details?!
Who will make sure that the other vendors are informed about my wedding itinerary?!
When I fill out my wedding itinerary is it easy, detailed, and planned online?!
How will my disc jockey play the guest song requests, is this done ahead of time?!
Will they give me Wedding Planning Advice, or just play music?!
Do they have an Online Music Area that I can browse AND sample songs from?!
What type of music selection will they offer me?!
Are their songs kept current with today’s trends for my guests?!
Do they have other options or services that other companies do not offer?!
Am I given a Wedding Song List where I can also sample formal dance suggestions?!

As you can see, entertainment accounts for more than just playing music, so the right question to ask is out of all the wedding DJs in Michigan, how can this company help personalize my day by saving me time and money!

3.) Who has the Right Attitude

There is more going on behind the scenes than you can imagine. To find out if your DJ can hold up to your expectations ask yourself out loud.

Are they the right company to represent myself, family & friends at my ONE wedding?!
Do they treat other professionals with respect and refer other vendors that they trust?!
Do they have the right personality to fit my vision and goals?!
Do they upgrade their equipment or invest into their company with new technology?!
Do they have the right customer service & reach me within 24hrs of me calling them?!
Do I get the chance to meet my DJ before my party?!
Do they specialize as a Michigan Wedding DJ?!

4.) Do they have a Commitment to Excellence

Do not trust your top rate day to a second rate service. To find out if they can backup what they say ask yourself out loud.

Is there a MONEY BACK GUARANTEE offered with their services?!
Do they go over the MONEY BACK GUARANTEE with me in detail?!
What is included in the MONEY BACK GUARANTEE?!

What happens if my DJ arrives late?!
Will they bring state-of-the-art backup equipment to my event?!
Do they honor or encourage positive music requests?!
Do they buy any important songs I might request beforehand?!
Will they be available for me to talk with them if I have questions?!
Have they ever had to enforce their MONEY BACK GUARANTEE before?!

5.) What They Do not Want You to Know about Prices

Price and package selection are important, and should be a consideration when it comes to booking a wedding DJs in Michigan. There should be a no pressure approach when giving you information about choosing entertainment. You need to speak with several different companies to find a service that matches your budget and goals. When you interview DJs in Michigan, you will find a difference in pricing as well as the services offered.

If their prices are average then will their services also be average?!
Are there hidden fees for setup, teardown, load-in, or the meetings?!
Are they sending a low rate DJ last minute to cover your wedding?!
Will they cancel on you the week of, to book a higher rate party?!

6.) And most importantly…

Do not forget to have fun. This should be an easy and fun decision for you!

Source: Robert Reno
mi 6 price

Guilin rice price increase public dissatisfaction with government intervention in regulating difficult

Rice flour Guangxi Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin, Baise, Guigang urban residents in major staple food, Guangxi Day Sell Total nearly one million kg rice flour. This year on January 1 and January 21, Nanning, Liuzhou cities suddenly rice prices rose 0.6 yuan per kg, rice prices in Liuzhou City or even 50% price increase. Required in the production of major rice Raw materials Rice and edible oil price rise is not significant under the premise of two soaring rice prices caused widespread public doubt, let the two government departments related to the test. Nanning, Liuzhou has

Prices General dissatisfaction with the public owner

From the beginning on January 1 this year, Nanning City, the major rice farmers market selling prices generally rose 0.6 yuan per kilogram. 21 started, all rice noodle price increase in Liuzhou, cutting powder, pressed powder raised to 1.9 yuan per kilogram? 2.1 yuan, and after the wholesale price of 1.4 yuan per kg, however? 1.5 per compared to 0.4 yuan per kg up to 0.7 Yuan, the highest rate of close to 50%. Household subsistence allowances

Liuzhou Yang Zhiqing said “one month’s subsistence allowances income, but several hundred dollars, prices of rice to four after one or two yuan, 3.5 yuan original as long as a month off, it will cost nearly 100 yuan Chi Mifen money. even if that is to market to buy flour for home made, too expensive or too much. ”

Ex-factory price of rice led to the retail end up reducing profits. Most of Mi Fendian reporters that although short-term prices for the time being will not be transferred onto the consumers, but in the long run, the source of the increased production will certainly lead to the end noodle sales prices.

Liuzhou Feet of Lin Lin Gangan shopkeeper told reporters powder, rice prices in the basic law, the prices increased most of the first half of the retail end of the Mi Fendian would “do anything” because of fears that tourists, but with the price increases have become an inevitable trend, unable to absorb the price increases will have to follow suit Mi Fendian.

Retail rice prices to rice brought no small impact. Nanning City, the more concentrated the gold section of Mi Fendian democratic way, Mi Fendian boss Mo Jian Ming said, because Raw material Rice flour and meat prices, a bowl of rice noodles gross profit decreased by 3 to 4 cents. Mo Jian Ming said: “The retail stores of rice noodles dropped nearly 20% of the total profit, operating income decreased significantly, and now opened a rice store only a little better than the migrant workers.”

Raw material prices remained stable in rice price-fixing suspect the early impact

More than the two journalists in the interview found in rice noodle, rice noodle manufacturer is responsible for a number of people have ex-factory price for the same time adjustments rice attributed the rising prices of raw materials, that of rice, edible oil, coal, water, electricity common rice price increases lead to higher prices, “is mainly caused raw material prices.”

However, this did not receive both the public and media recognition, voices of doubt have been constant reports. Reporter found Nanning Wuliting, New Yáng, Liuzhou Wuli card, Yuejin Road, grain and other agricultural products wholesale market, the main raw material rice noodle prices essentially flat compared to last year, oil prices overall did not rise.

A rice retail shop owners told reporters that one level is now shirking its responsibility, Mi Fendian is the price lifted the rice noodle, rice noodle is said to be Food prices Up, but the real price-fixing is the core of rice noodle.

The calculations of the owner to reporters: The main ingredient is rice, rice flour, rice price fluctuations will affect the cost of rice. The recent rice price rose slightly, but the rate of increase is small, per kg rose between 0.12 to 0.14 yuan. Although oil prices have slightly increased, but little effect on the cost of rice. Therefore, many rice noodle “going up” one, obviously, “without just cause.”

Such cases, the price surge caused Nanning, Liuzhou public outcry.

Source: yaya
mi 6 price

Why Does My Dog Growl at Me?

Guarding is an instinctual behavior for dogs. It is useful to us when they warn strangers who intrude on their (and our) territory. One of the earliest benefits dog provided to man was to serve as an early warning intruder alert system.

Territoriality is, simply stated, guarding space. It is the dog’s way of saying “this space has value and it belongs to me and my pack.” In fact, dogs guard all sorts of things, some tangible, such as food, others intangible such as space.

When they guard these items from outsiders it can be helpful. I leave my home knowing my dog will be alert to an inappropriate intrusion. Dogs also guard tangibles and intangibles from one another. You shouldn’t expect to see a submissive dog take a bone or scrap from the alpha or dominant dog. Should he try, he’ll face a swift correction. But that’s rarely necessary because in the structure of the dog pack, it is clearly understood who is entitled to what and when.

But what happens when that clear understanding is lacking between a dog and members of his human pack? The results can be a disaster…a dog who guards something against his very owners.

In this article we’ll concentrate on space guarding behaviors. In the dog pack, if the dominant dog wants to walk from point A to point B, he will do it even if he has to nudge a lesser dog out of his way. If the more submissive dog protests, what he is actually doing is challenging the authority of his leader by trying to guard the space he occupies.

The same event may transpire in our homes. Your dog helps himself to a place on the sofa. You either sit down next to him, or try to take his collar to pull him off. Your own dog growls or snaps at you. He’s guarding space. Moreover, he’s stating in dog language that he believes he is dominant to you.

You need to open a cabinet and the dog is blocking your way. You take his collar to move him, and he growls or bites. The same thing may occur when you want to push the dog out a door, pass him in a narrow hallway, or get too close to him laying in his favorite spot.

In many households, the human occupants do not realize that their dog is guarding space until the dog becomes completely out of control. In fact, we excuse the behavior. That’s because too often people apply human standards to canine behavior. Among our species it is impolite to pull someone out of a chair or shoulder them aside when you need something. So if the dog growls when you sit by him on the couch, many people wrongly think the dog is just being grumpy, or that he was too comfortable to be disturbed.

I have actually seen adults chastise children for being “impolite” to a dog for sitting next to him on furniture, or for wanting to remove the dog from their place. People subconsciously try to accept these problems as “quirks” of the dog. Many owners try to just work around the issue by not disturbing the dog under whatever circumstance causes the dog to guard.

Unfortunately, this sends precisely the wrong message to the dog. Humoring him confirms that he is dominant, and is, therefore, entitled to guard more and more space. That’s why guarding behavior escalates for many dogs. Often, I hear from owners who’s dog began to growl at them under very limited conditions, say when being pulled off the sofa. But eventually the behavior escalates to the point where the dog growls when they even get near him on the sofa.

The owner thinks the dog is getting worse. The dog simply thinks he’s getting stronger. For some dogs, dominance is a self-rewarding behavior. You want to remove him from the couch. He growls. You back off. The behavior works. So eventually he growls when you even look at him on the couch. “They just don’t seem to get it,” the dog is thinking. “I’ll have to warn them earlier.”

This can become very problematic for some pet owners, particularly those with young children in the house. Kids often don’t realize that they’re not “supposed to bother the dog.” They just figure they have liberty to safely toddle wherever their little legs will take them. And if you ask me, they should have that right.

Older children must be taught to respect dogs. And younger children must be observed very carefully when they interact with a dog, to be sure they do not accidentally pinch him for example. But no one can expect a two year old child to understand she should avoid Rover when he’s laying on the sofa.

Willy is a three year old German Short Hair Pointer. His owner, Lisa, called me very concerned. Willy had been growling at her baby every time the child approached him in his dog bed. Sometimes Willy would climb on the couch, and he would also growl at the baby on those occasions. Apparently this behavior had been going on for over a month. And just recently, the dog had growled at Lisa when she sat near him on the couch. Lisa was very confused because this entire set of behaviors was only about a month old, but it was getting worse fast.

“Did your baby start walking about a month ago?” I asked her. The answer was yes. That made it all clear to me. Willy always felt Lisa was dominant to him. So he never growled at her before. But when the baby started walking, this impudent little human would intrude on his space, and Willy did believe himself dominant to the baby.

Not understanding the behavior, Lisa had spent an entire month showing Willy how dominant he was by not correcting him and not letting the baby disturb him when he was comfortable. The unintended message to Willy was that he was more dominant than he had originally thought. That’s why he began to guard space from Lisa too.

While not all dogs progress from growling to snapping, or from air snapping to contact biting, that does happen with some dogs. And it’s tragic because it usually doesn’t need to reach that point. Left untreated, most dogs who effectively guard space will eventually scare or hurt their owners enough to be removed from their homes, or be put down.

Willy became a client of the Chicagoland Boarding School for Dogs. In the time he spent with us, we used our Forcefree Method to show him that space was not a resource he should guard from his human family.

We taught Willy a series of exercises using a vibrating training collar delivering a series of low level taps. The vibration, while not at all painful, was attention getting. (Before we put the collar on Willy, we let Lisa feel the the collar on her hand so she understood they were not painful. Lisa described the feeling as a mild tickle.) During the initial phase of training, our goal was to teach Willy that when he felt the taps, he could stop them by altering a behavior.

We started out with leash pulling, showing him that pulling on a tight leash turned on the tapping sensation, and that walking nicely on a loose leash turned them off. Then we went to the sit stay. We showed Willy that getting up when he was supposed to be sitting turned on taps that he could turn off instantly by re-sitting himself.

The reason we didn’t go right to the space guarding issue was simple. We didn’t want to overwhelm the dog by immediately training for the most difficult behavior first. Also the guarding behaviors are very specific to the family. They might be tough to reproduce without his sofa, his baby, and his owner.

But once Willy understood that he could stop collar taps by altering a behavior, we were ready to confront the real issue, the guarding of space. By this point in the training, we had established a bond of trust and affection with Willy. That was critical because now we were teaching him to yield his personal space to us under the pressure of the taps.

In short, by sometimes invading Willy’s personal space, while tapping, we showed him that he could turn off the tapping, as usual, by giving us a desired behavior…in this case, moving out of the way. Starting on leash, we held the dog close to our body, literally turning into him, and tapped as we moved through his space. Using a combination of leash pressure and body movement, we moved Willy out of the way. The second he began to yield his space, the taps stopped.

Willy began to understand very quickly. Space wasn’t worth guarding anymore. In fact, each time we asked him to give up space, he became very willing to do so at once. After all, as far as he knew, any space we asked him for became slightly annoying anyway.

We brought this dog home at the conclusion of our ten day program, reoriented him to his family and his environment, transferred the behavior modification techniques to his owner over the course of two hours. Then we left.

Lisa called two days later. She reported that Willy was leaving his dog bed as soon as the baby approached. We were happy with this report, but Lisa was concerned. She wanted the dog and the baby to be friends and she was worried that the dog was now “fleeing” from the baby.

We explained that this was progress given that the dog had modified a major behavior and was now yielding space, rather than guarding it. We advised her to give it some more time to see if the dog would eventually find pleasure in sharing space, time and bonding with the baby in his new submissive role. We did warn Lisa that not all dogs bond with all people, but that it was still a distinct possibility.

Two weeks later Lisa called again, and she was very happy. She found Willy and the baby curled up together in the dog’s bed. Apparently, Willy had calmed down enough to realize that while he was no longer able to guard space, there was a wonderful pleasure in sharing it.

Trust is something that grows over time, and with experience. Every day that passes as Willy continues to show the right reaction is one more day in which the trust between he and his family grows. Willy has been home for several months now, and all the reports are good news.

Here is a dog who was at severe risk for re-homing and possibly might have injured a child, curled up in bed with his little master.

Source: Marc Goldberg, CDT
mi 6 price

Planning an Affordable Michigan Wedding

Most brides want a fairytale wedding, complete with all the trimmings and special touches, but a Michigan wedding can run into some pretty substantial expenditures. Planning an affordable Michigan wedding that is still beautiful, romantic and unforgettable means knowing the best ways to save money while still keeping that romantic vision.

We’ve put together some great tips for saving money on your wedding so you can celebrate in style without ruining your budget as a newly married couple.

1. Shop for your wedding gown early and check out several bridal shops. You may be surprised by the considerable price difference from one shop to another. Ask the sales staff about discontinued gowns or gowns that are from last year’s collections. These are often sold at a steep discount and no one but you will know that you found a bargain.

2. Look for a reception location that won’t need a lot of decorating. You can have a Michigan wedding at any one of several historical locations and special event venues that are lovely and have wonderful ambiance. You’ll want to find a historic locale with the look and feel of a castle, complete with formal gardens, stonewalls, arched windows and the feel of the Old World, the romance and beauty are already there. No finishing touches will be needed. The prettier the natural setting, the less you’ll have to pay to dress it up.

3. Ask your reception hall about what they include in the price. Some locations charge extra for the rental of tables, chairs, candles and linens. Don’t forget to consider this; if you find a place that includes these extras in the cost of the location, you’ll save money in the long run. Since they have everything on hand, you will eliminate this cost from your catering and decorating budget.

4. Bundle the locations for your Michigan wedding. In other words, find a place that is perfect for the rehearsal dinner, wedding and reception all in one. You’ll save a significant amount of money by booking everything together. Reception halls and historic locations love being able to take care of you on your wedding day from beginning to end. They benefit from having two full days of activities at their location, and you benefit from the reduced cost. With less transportation needed, the reduced cost of using the same caterer for both the rehearsal dinner and wedding reception, and the opportunity to streamline everything, will not only save you money, it will save you aggravation. If you host everything in one location, you have fewer contacts to worry about and less confusion. Peace of mind can be priceless when planning your Michigan wedding!

5. Look for a Michigan wedding location that provides you with a facilitator at no extra cost. These are staff members, often certified wedding planners, who work with all their guests to coordinate your special day from beginning to end. Since it’s included in the cost of your wedding and reception, you aren’t paying out of pocket for your own wedding planner.

6. Remember to look for beautiful photo opportunities. Michigan is filled with locations that feature beautiful gardens and are close to the shore. These make wonderful backgrounds for your wedding photos and are free to use any time. If you find a reception location that has their own gardens and is an easy drive to the shore for additional pictures, you’ve found a gem.

7. Many Michigan wedding planners save money be recommending that brides pick out their favorite music and put it all on a CD to be used at the wedding ceremony. It’s less expensive than hiring professional musicians, and you don’t have to worry about no-shows. You’re guaranteed to have great music at a reasonable price, and you can pick all your favorite songs. A DJ at the reception is also much less expensive than a live band, and you aren’t limited to a particular type of music.

8. If you are planning on hosting an open bar at your Michigan wedding reception, ask if you can bring your own alcohol and supply your own bartender. Hiring a bartender directly eliminates the fee for a middleman, and you’ll save hundreds of dollars by buying your own liquor. The mark-up on alcohol, wine and beer is usually substantial.

Source: Hilbert John
mi 6 price

Used Stair Lifts Are A Good Option To Save Money

A used, reconditioned stair lift is a viable option. However, there are ten key things to consider when purchasing a used stair chair lift.

1. Only straight stairways are most commonly fitted with a used stair lift.

2. Some stair lift models are not able to be switched from one side of the stairs to the other.

3. Some rails on used stair lifts can not be lengthened due to variance in the track tolerances.

4. Short or tall stair lift users may require an adjustable seat height on the stair lift.

5. If you have lower back problems, the a soft start and soft start stair lift model is required.

6. If the previous stair lift user was over 250 lbs., then there stair lift rail may have excessive wear.

7. Never buy a stair lift that you have not seen running.

8. Confirm with the stair lift manufacturer that the model you are considering purchasing is a stair lift model that has parts available.

9. Confirm that there are a few stair lift installation companies in your area that carry the model you are considering buying so that you have back up if service issues come up in the future. A stair lift model that is being offered by only one company is not strong support for the future if distribution channels change.

10. Learn about the previous stair lift user. Did they smoke? How often did they use the stair lift? Were they the original purchaser of the unit you are considering? Did more than one person use the stair lift? Was it serviced by a stair lift installation company?

The cost of a used stairlift can vary from $500 to $2000 for the lift plus installation. A fair price for installing a stair lift is somewhere between $500 and $800. A warranty should be included in the labour price of a around three months or more. Most problems with used stairlifts occur with a few weeks of the initial installation.

A stair lift installation company should be well versed in issues like the footrest height so that it misses the stair treads, installing the rail close to the wall but not too close to allow the seat to swivel at the top or bottom of the stairs, adjusting the seat height to fit the stair lift user and making sure that the connection to the electrical supply is satisfactory.

Some states require a licensed stair lift installer to install a stairlift. Oregon, Washington, Michigan and Connecticut require this designation.

Most states and provinces insist that for any commercial stair lift installation a licensed installer is required.

This is unfortunate since stair lift regulations drive up the price. A licensed stairlift installer is many times more expensive than a non licensed installer. Government fees in the regulated states also add to the price. Some states are considering deregulating stairlift regulations. Some other states are considering adding to this situation.

Another troubling trend is for elevator unions trying to regulate stair lift installations so as to capture market share.

It is the author’s opinion that a stair lift installation can be handled by a handy person.

The ideal situation is to purchase a used or reconditioned stair lift from a stairlift installation company who can match the stair lift user’s physical needs with the stairway site particularities such as the stair width, length of track and stair lift seat height adjustability.

Source: Robert Harvey
mi 6 price