Tamil Nadu – A Big Contender for Attracting Investment in India

Tamil Nadu is an Indian state that lies in the southern part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by Pondicherry, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.  It’s the fifth largest contributor to India’s GDP and the most urbanized state in the country with the highest number of Business enterprises, pegged at 10.56%, compared to the overall population share of 6%.

With Chennai as its capital, Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India and has the fifth largest economy and the third highest Human Development Index out of 29 Indian states. The state’s economic growth was slowed by the Fiscal crisis that peaked in 1999/2000 forcing its government to implement wide ranging financial and structural reforms. The reform program impacted the economy with a good fiscal adjustment. The five policy notes from the government span fiscal reform and sustainability, improving investment environment, agricultural development, governance challenges and the state’s poverty profile.

The Tamil Nadu Industrial Investment Corporation (TIIC) has proposed to advance nearly Rs.13, 000 million for promotion of industries in the state in the fiscal year 2010/2011. Out of this, about Rs. 1000 million is earmarked for advancing loans for the existing industries and for starting new ventures.  The TIIC earned a profit of about Rs.400 million after a gap of several years for the year 2009/2010 fiscal calendar. The organization has been providing financial assistance at competitive interest rates for the setting up of new industrial units, expansion, modernization and the diversification of existing industries. The State plans to announce a new mining policy, in line with the national policy, this year.

The state’s GDP at 2007 stood at Rs. 2,750,000 million in current prices, a corresponding GDP growth rate of 12.1% for that period. The economy is split into: the services industry, contributing 45% of its economic activities; manufacturing, comprising 34%, and the agricultural sector taking 21%. However, the state’s government has been the major investor in the state with a total of 51% total investments followed by private investors at 29.9% and foreign investments at 14.9%. The city has about 110 industrial parks and efficient infrastructure that has been behind recent major economic successes. The Tamil Nadu Investors Association aims at educating small investors, protecting their interests and promoting investments and entrepreneurship in the state.

Major industrial successes in the state include multinationals and big Indian firms located in the region. They include BMW, Ford, Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, Hyundai, Mitsubishi Motors, Ashok Leyland, Hindustan, TVS Motors, and Royal Enfield etc in the automobile industry while telecommunication giants include Nokia, Flextronics, Motorola, Sony-Ericsson, Foxconn, Samsung, Cisco, Dell and Moser Baer.

Source: Kamal Kishore Poria
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Xiaomi Mi MIX 2 front panel emerges, design coincides with alleged live pic

The announcement date for Xiaomi’s Mi MIX 2 is just around the corner, and, as usual, more and more leaks are starting to come in. We’ve already seen alleged images of the phone’s back and front, and today, we have another leak for you coming straight from Chinese website Weibo.

As you can see, this new photo pretty much coincides with the supposed live image of the device’s front – there are three extra thin bezels on the left, right, and top, while a slightly thicker chin is situated at the bottom. Up till now, the general assumption …

Overcoming Sleepless Nights, The Natural Way

In today’s world, sleep problems are an issue affecting many people. Whether they have too much on their mind to sleep or they simply can’t get comfortable in bed, sleep problems are something which can affect an individual both physically and mentally. Although there are numerous sleep aid products on the consumer market these days, there are various ways in which an individual can get a good night’s sleep, the natural way.

– Eliminate Caffeine Products a Few Hours Before Bedtime

Since consuming products laden with caffeine can interrupt one’s sleep and even prevent individuals from falling asleep, it is important to stay clear of these caffeine-containing products in the hours prior to bedtime. Doing so will better ensure the individual can fall asleep and stay asleep for the rest of the night. For those who would like a beverage in the hours before bedtime, decaffeinated coffee or herbal teas that do not contain any caffeine are great choices. This is a great alternative for those who want a coffee or tea product yet do not want the caffeine to affect their sleep.

– Take the Television Out of the Bedroom

One who wishes to get a good night’s sleep the natural way should consider removing their television from their bedroom. As many individuals like to watch television in bed, they are also the ones who may have a hard time falling asleep as they simply cannot turn the television off and get some shuteye. By not having a television in the bedroom to begin with, this will eliminate any TV temptations and promote good sleeping habits.

– Utilize Adequate Light-Blocking Blinds and Drapes

Another reason why some individuals may have a hard time getting to sleep at night is due to inadequate blinds and shades on their windows. Even at nighttime it is possible to have outside light affect one’s sleeping habits such as full moonlight, streetlights and house lights. Therefore, applying good blinds and shades to one’s windows will help to ensure that the night lights outside are sufficiently blocked out. It is easier to sleep when it is as dark in the bedroom as possible.

– Consider Purchasing an Adjustable Bed

Another wonderful option for overcoming sleepless nights the natural way is to utilize an adjustable bed. Frequently individuals have a hard time falling asleep because they simply are not comfortable in their sleeping positions. By purchasing an adjustable bed, the individual will be able to move their bed around to a position that promotes the best sleep possible for them.

– Summary

A good night’s sleep is extremely important. Not only will it make individuals feel better physically the next day but mentally as well. By following the aforementioned tips one can better ensure they will overcome sleepless nights, the natural way.

Source: Tom Willmar
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How To Establish Urban Garden For For Fun and Profit

HOW TO ESTABLISH  URBAN GARDEN FOR FUN AND PROFIT 

Urban gardening is ideal in the city or town where your space for planting is limited. If you’re employed in the city and you’ve no time to go to the province to do your farming activities, then urban gardening is best for you. 

Benefits you can get from urban gardening: 

  • It could be therapeutic. Tending your plants early in the morning or after office hours relieves you from stress in the workplace and in the home. 
  • It could be enjoyable. When you see your plants with attractive flowers and vigorous growth, your imagination wanders like you’re in heaven with a happiness and satisfaction you can’t explain. 
  • Generate additional income. You can sell your extra plants to others if you think they are surplus for your personal needs. The city is a ready market because there are plenty of people and there’s the purchasing power. 
  • Reduce waste accumulation. You can recycle used materials such as; tin cans and plastics, sachets, tin foils  for potting, Styrofoam for seed boxes, biodegradable products for composting, and others. 

Strategies in Urban Gardening 

  • Select the right crops to grow, depending on the purpose or purposes of going into urban gardening. 
  • Identify a particular target market if you’re into commercial production. 
  • Develop your own passion or specialization and concentrate on that line. 
  • You can rent or borrow vacant lot. 
  • You can use your roof top if you have any. 
  • You can create plant boxes along your fence and walkways. 
  • You can grow plants in pots and other containers. 

What kind of plants are ideal for urban gardening 

You can grow all kinds of plants from fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. 

  • Fruits. You can grow fruits if not in the ground, you can plant them in containers, e. g. citrus, guava, lemon, balimbing, etc. 
  • Vegetables. Many varieties can be grown both in the ground and in containers. 
  • Ornamentals. There are many types of ornamentals you can grow, depending on your target market, capital required, and your inclination in urban gardening. 

Requirements you need to know in urban gardening 

Before you enter into urban gardening, strictly observe the following requirements in order to be successful: 

  • Water. Water is the most important item for any kind of plant. Without it, your gardening activities will be amiss. You have to consider the cost and continuous availability of water. 
  • Soil media. If you intend to grow your plants in containers, soil or potting media are important. You should have available supply of it all the time. 
  • Source of pots and containers. Try to know where to get the cheaper source and continuous supply for pots germinating trays of different hole sizes, and containers. 
  • Tools and implements. All of these should be at hand for your gardening activities, such as shovel, hoe, pick mattock, spade, trowel, sprayer, tractor (with accessories for bigger areas), and others. 
  • Manpower. Provide yourself with available workers to help you in the garden. Though you can do it yourself, but at least there is one you can trust to tend your plants when you’re out for some other business. 
  • Materials and seeds. See to it that you have available of these materials and seeds in your nursery such as; seeds and other planting materials. Get your planting materials from reputable source or certified seed suppliers. 

Improving unsuitable soil 

When your place is stony or adobe and you think there is no more hope for the plant o grow, don’t panic, there is still remedy to improve it. The strategies to undertake are:

  •  Look for plants that will grow in rocks or adobe stones (rock gardening). There are plants that grow vigorously on rock such; balete tree, some cactus species, etc). Arrange them in such a way that they will not compete with space and sunlight.
  • Add garden soil or organic material such as manure, compost, and others. You can make holes on the rock just enough to hold the soil media in place for specific plants. For larger plants you can make bigger holes so that more soil media may be placed to sustain the growing period of the plants.
  • Look for possible sources. 

How to earn profits from your urban garden 

There are so many ways you can promote your urban garden to make it known to the public and earn you a profit. 

The following tips can enhance your promotional strategies: 

  • Attend garden shows or trade fairs. You can bring and  display your exotic plants in the garden shows or trade fairs so the customers will see them. Display your gardens’ name, location, proximity to the market, and plants grown.
  •  Publish in all media outlets. Submit pictures of your garden and plants in magazines, TV, Internet, and newspapers to have a wider dissemination to the reading public.
  •  By word-of-mouth. Often times you invite some visitors for some special occasions like; birthdays, get together, Christmas parties, or any occasions you may establish.  
  • Show to your guests your beautiful urban garden plants. You may give them as a  token out of your plants and tell them your plants are for sale if they have some friends interested to buy plants from you at discounted price.
  • Send brochures of your urban garden to gardening sites. Invite site owners to help you promote your urban garden plants for a percentage fee say 50-60% for the gross sale of your plants. This methods is called affiliates, resellers or partners wherein both of you earns an income. A win-win strategy.
  •  Accept consultancy or speaker ship.   As an expert you can accept consultancy in symposia to those interested in urban gardening. While at this event you can insert your garden in your talks. You can tell your audience about your urban garden, what plants are grown and they are for sale. You may also bring with you your sample plants to the events and sale or give them to your audience. 

In urban gardening you can enjoy the work in your garden, feel the freshness of the surroundings because of the smell of sweet flowers, the vigorous growth of your plants, and at the same time it can provide you with additional income. 

Enjoy urban gardening and let your expertise flourish for the benefit of others while giving you fresh vegetables and fresh flowers. Above all gives you an income out of your plants. 

Come on, stretch out your aching back and body and let the soil and plants in your garden provide the solution to relieve your pain and at the same time earn you an additional income. 

What about that, are you serious in urban gardening? 

Then, come on let’s go, roll out your sleeves. 

Cris Ramasasa, Freelance writer, writes about home gardening and Internet marketing tips. You can get a copy of his latest ebook “How to get started in Flower Gardening” and “Vegetable Gardening Made Easy” and also get lots of tips, Free articles, and bonuses at: www.crisramasasa.com

Source: Crisologo Ramasasa
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10 Worst Celebrity Plastic Surgeries

10 worst cases of CELEBRITY PLASTIC SURGERIES that just went awfully wrong. There is so much emphasis on youth, being slender and beauty in much of the world. Especially, it is so true in the Western societies with billboards, TV, star news, the Internet and radio inundating our society with how important it is to have all three of those attributes, or you’re just not of value. Many women have gone under the knife due to this pressure.

Hang Mioku is a South Korean woman, 48, not necessary a star but she’s made repeated headlines in the celebrity news due to her insane addiction; Mioku manifests what happens with many plastic surgeries. She became so addicted to it that she injected cooking oil into her face ultimately. Yikes! As Hank Williams sang these words,”Hey good lookin’, what you got cookin’?”, he should have told Ms. Mioku to use the cooking oil for her dinner, not her face. Remember Muammar Gaddafi?

Heidi Montag had her old breast implants increased to DDDs, a nose job revision, a lipo on her stomach and thighs, a butt augmentation, a brow lift, etc, etc, etc.

Montag shocked the world when she underwent ten plastic surgery procedures in one day. Most of us either don’t know or have forgotten that Heidi has already had two plastic surgeries done prior to her big tune up. Watch out Heidi, don’t go any further otherwise Good God we don’t want to have you looking like Jocelyn Wildenstein down the road.

Jackie Stallone, the mother of Sylvester Stallone (Rocky Balboa in the movie Rocky). She looks like she’s been through some tough fights herself. Actually, her new face is after thousands of dollars worth of many plastic surgeries. Maybe after a few more surgeries she can look as good as her original face?

Michael Jackson, the King of Pop had multiple nose jobs, cheek implants; eyelid surgery, a cleft put in his chin.You name it he had it. He just had too many inappropriate operations.

As for Michael’s big sister LaToya Jackson, she must have used the same surgeon as Michael did before he died. The most obvious work LaToya has done is on her nose.

Pete Burns is a former member of Dead or Alive, who had the top single “You Spin Me Round”. He spent the fortune he earned from his successful music career on reconstructive surgeries after a botched plastic surgery on his lips. It appears he should have kept the money.

Jocelyn Wildenstein, this is the formerly beautiful billionairess socialite Wildenstein, who is also being referred to as the Bride of Frankenstein. She reportedly spent millions on plastic surgeries to win back her estranged husband. He may have run even faster after the surgeries! Joan Rivers, has had facelift, eye tuck, nose job, Botox, etc, etc etc.

Mickey Rourke undergone face reconstructive surgery. Rourke, the once boxer turned Hollywood heartthrob went back to boxing in the early 90s; and Mickey suffered a lot of physical injuries including facial scars. Mickey said he had gone to “the wrong guy” for his surgery and that his plastic surgeon had left his features “a mess.”

Lisa Rinna had inflated lips and face filler. Rinna’s famously inflated lips have been deflated as she has admittedly had a surgical procedure done to reduce them. (Thank God) As for the face filler?

http://anythinghollywood.com/

Source: stev81lor
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Discussing Muscles and Bodybuilding Techniques

As my friend Mick Hart says, you have been around the muscle game a good while Pete, true 68 years in fact. By the way I have not been in the muscle game for 68 years, that is my age.

Some time ago a great friend of mine, top strength historian, David Gentle wrote a rather flattering article on myself, thanks David, we in the “Iron Game” are very lucky to have the two top authors in the strength and bodybuilding world. David Gentle and David Webster OBE, I had better give him his full title or I will be in trouble.

One of the greatest physiques of all time was George Hackenschmidt, why do these top bodybuilders have such difficult names to spell, I still can’t spell Arnold Schwarzenegger. Quite a number of top actors are keen bodybuilders, Dave Prowse who played Darth Vader in Star Wars, (A big friend of Dave Websters), he was also the Green Cross Code man, to help children crossing busy roads.

While doing national service in Gibraltar, I did my first weight lifting, the bloke in charge of one of the guns, had made himself a solid lead dumbell to keep in shape. I rather surprised him by lifting it with one hand to prove I was not just a pretty face). No doubt many of your readers will know I used to do TV and film extra work, before I moved to the flat, I had to give it up because of stress and Multiple Sclerosis, it was just too much. However I did meet many interesting and nice people and some who were absolute shits, I will not name those I consider shits, or my friend Mick will have a court case on his hands. I will only name the nice people, mostly the bigger stars they are the more decent they are.

In those days I was a member of Equity and lived in Marple, I used to give Bruce Jones a lift before he became very well known as Les Battersby in Coronation Street. I was doing my charity collecting for the Stockport branch of MS and Bruce spotted me and shouted through his car window, “Hiya Pete, see you in a minute”, the organiser of the collection did not recognise him and walked over to his car and asked if he could help, Bruce said no I have just seen Pete he is a mate of mine. I have several sister in-laws, six in all one who lives in Marple, was not in the room when brains were given out, however I introduced her to Bruce, she said “Hey you are in Coronation Street”. Bruce grinned and said, “That’s right love. No comment!”

Two of the top TV stars I chatted to were Patricia Routledge (Mrs Bucket) and Charles Dance who gave me my Sunday name of Peter, both very nice people, I was in the film, Century, Charles Dance being the star.

Looking through my old copies of No Bull I spotted a photo of Geoff Morris a former over 50’s Mr Britain, also a champion 6in nail breaker, who Dave Webster credits showing him the correct technique for breaking 6in nails. Geoff was a smashing person, we did a double strength act on wrestling shows, I used to meet him at a nice pub once a month, which was half way for both of us.

I know my friend Jim Bartlett bought some of Geoffs collection. How do I know? because I took Jim to Geoffs lodgings when he died, a sad day for all.

Jim got a job at a sheltered Jewish home complex, not being Jewish he soon moved on, (it is not true he got the sack for asking Jewish kids what their Christian names were.) Jim worked for our old friend Harold Wrigley, packaging and posting his health foods. No doubt many of us know Harold’s wife who died suddenly, a smashing girl was Joyce, she used to pack all Harold’s products before Jim took over. Last I heard of Harold he had gone to live in Spain, with his third wife, he must like wedding cake!

I read Black American show host, Montel Williams has MS, he also trains for bodybuilding like me to keep his MS at bay. I might add Montel has quite a good physique, he did a back pose to prove his point on one of his shows.

I would like to thank Pete Lindrop for his contribution to this blog.

Source: Mick Hart
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Caught in a Stress Storm?

Imagine you’re on your way to meet friends at a bar. You’re late and stuck behind a slow-moving van when the entire street lurches into darkness. Suddenly that man crossing the street in front of you looks like a potential robber. The cars around you seem to be hemming you in. Everyone and everything appears dangerous. You’ve gone from slightly stressed to completely strung-out in an instant.

When you finally get to the bar, your friends are deep in conversation about blackouts, crime and their plans to leave the country. What should have been a light-hearted, fun-filled evening has turned into one riddled with anxiety.

It’s as though a cloud of dark heaviness is hanging above us right now. Most of us are unaware of the extent to which worrying issues are affecting us. But if a high level of stress continues over a long period, paralyzing feelings of being overwhelmed can set in.Many of us could be in the heart of what is termed as a ‘stress storm’. Have you ever been in the situation where, because of stress, you couldn’t remember the name of one of your own family members? Perhaps you’re stuck in a depression, or maybe you’ve accomplished something great but the next morning you don’t want to get out of bed because you’re so down.

These are indications that you are caught in a stress storm – a place filled with fear and confusion, where you’re no longer thinking rationally. If this sounds familiar, read on to understand better what’s happening to you – and how to get to grips with it.

Why are we so Stressed?

In the USA we have a set of stressors to contend with – high crime rates, rising costs of food and gas, and an economic situation in which retrenchments are increasingly common. These compound everyday stressors such as work, family conflicts and financial pressures. We don’t let our bodies or minds relax, and develop distorted perceptions about ourselves – for example, we may think we’re accepted only if we’re performing well.

When people are taxed on so many levels, their resilience rapidly erodes. Most people can deal with one stressful area in their lives – even two – but few people can function optimally when every area of their life is affected by instability and stress.

Stress Poisoning

Our bodies are built to handle stress in short, sharp bursts, but when there is no let-up, stress can in fact be toxic for our bodies. When we’re stressed, our adrenal glands pump out cortisol. This ‘stress hormone’ is preparing our muscles for the fight-or-flight response triggered when our lives are in danger. All energy is diverted from other functions, such as digestion, giving our bodies a burst of energy to ensure we can fight or flee if necessary. Modern stressors, however, such as traffic jams, don’t come and go quite as fast as, say, an attacking buffalo. Consequently, the cortisol and adrenaline that our stressors produce never leave our bodies – our lives are constantly turned to a high-alert setting.

On a physical level – which is where symptoms are easiest to detect and treat – stress may show up as migraines, headaches, muscle aches and pains, skin breakouts (acne, psoriasis, eczema) and stomach problems (including irritable bowel syndrome and constipation). Emotionally, we become more prone to outbursts of temper, mood swings and negativity. Mentally, we feel less able to cope. Our outlook becomes distorted and it becomes very difficult to keep our perspective. Highly stressed people become ‘reactive’. This means they react more to everything in their lives, from the lack of milk in the fridge to the geyser bursting. We become so overwhelmed that we literally get ‘beside ourselves’.

Living on Autopilot

Jane, 27, a fashion planner, knows this feeling all too well. While working in a high-pressure corporate fashion job reporting to a demanding boss, she was being pushed to work longer hours and perform tasks she didn’t feel prepared for.

‘As the pressure built up over about five months, I began feeling increasingly anxious. My short-term memory started to let me down and I would forget things I was meant to do. For example, I’d walk into a room and then go blank, forgetting why I was there. I felt confused all the time and began talking more slowly and slurred my words. I lost a lot of weight and at the height of my stress my right arm would get very tense and feel taut. It’s a scary place to be. It can feel as though you don’t know yourself – as though you’re having a mental meltdown.’

This feeling is not uncommon. Stressed people often describe themselves as being on autopilot – as though they’re participating in the show of their own life, but not starring. They’re overwhelmed and often feel clumsy, awkward and off-centre. They may forget names of people or even the names of simple, everyday objects. This is due to the prolonged periods of cortisol production, but also, because we’re trying to remember too many things.

High levels of stress can affect our relationships too. Some people, like Jane, are too tired to go out and socialize, and often feel they’re a burden on other people. ‘Friends tried to help,’ remembers Jane. ‘I’d lost a lot of weight so they could see I was in distress but they didn’t really know how to help other than telling me to chill out’.

Others may drink more to be more sociable or in an attempt to forget, so the glass of wine suddenly turns into a bottle of wine. According to research women could be more prone to developing stress-related addictions (such as cocaine addiction) than men. The good news, though, is that stress is our body’s way of telling us to do something. But what?

The suggestions below are a good start. Don’t knock them for sounding obvious – at least not till you’ve actually tried them.

Stress Busters

Gain Perspective

Understand that there are certain things in your life that you have control over and others that you don’t. If, for example, you are concerned about the political situation, vote. If you’re concerned about crime, join or start a neighborhood-watch program. Be proactive about things you can influence and let go of those you can’t.

Breathe

At work, if you find yourself getting stressed or anxious, go somewhere quiet and concentrate on your breathing. Imagine your breathing is like waves breaking on a beach. Maintain a regular rhythm. Imagine you are breathing all the way down to your toes when you breathe in, and all the way back up again as you breathe out.

Eat Well

Don’t hand your power over to food and drink. That fatty hamburger isn’t going to release your stress. Rather ask, ‘What will this drink or food do to my body over the long term?’ Cut down on sugar. Sugar gives you a temporary lift followed by a downer. If you’re craving something sweet, try eating fruit or a handful of nuts. Drink lots of water. Stress tends to dehydrate the body. Keeping your body hydrated will lessen stress symptoms such as fatigue and headaches.

Exercise More

One of the most effective ways of dealing with stress is to exercise. Try to do some form of exercise at least three times a week for 30 to 60 minutes.

Develop a Positive Internal Dialogue

This is a powerful way to help ourselves when we’re stressed. We tend to feel anxious about things we have no control over (the future, other people), and most of what we fear never happens. Remain in the moment. If you start to stress about tomorrow, remind yourself that you can only live today – tomorrow does not yet exist.

Talk to a Professional

Jane consulted a psychologist, who helped her see that getting through her stress storm meant removing herself from her stressful job. ‘I took three months off, stayed home and just slept, watched TV and did nothing.’ She saw her psychologist for a few months and gradually became her old self again, but this time with the tools to recognize and avoid another stress storm.

Source: Sandra Prior
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Krav Maga – How to defend yourself on the street

Krav Maga – How to defend yourself on the street

This was the keyword: self-defense. My schoolmates bullied me when I was in school. It was not often but sometimes I was the guy who got knocked by children who wanted to show how tough they are. On my school bullying children was like an entry ticket to a girls, you know what I mean. Also if you are a girl, in fact a fat and ugly one, the boys bullyied you. Doesn’t matter. The main reason was to look strong.

When I remember this time I laugh only. Yes, I am not a boy maybe but who said self-defense is for boys only? I decided to learn self defense when I was confronted with a bad situation the first time in my life. It was at 9 pm. You have to know, here where I live, it is not safe on the streets especially if you are a woman. Perverted men will bother and try to get what they want. Let us not go deeper in the details. You just have to know that those perverts are not friendly and they will not let you go easily.

2 weeks ago it happened: I was at my friend Laura. We watched Tv but I noticed it was late outside and I did not come with the car because the only way I have to pass were 3 streets. bad luck. because this evening the Jenny everyone knew before would change. Three guys came to my direction. I knew something was wrong and I had to go faster. When I tried to walk faster they whistled and called hey babe, where are you going? Stop for a moment! Hah, I definitely are not about to stop and began to run. One of them was drunk I guess, when I passed them he grabbed my arm and the other one with bad breath laughed at me and grabbed my boobs. I kicked him into his balls and ran as fast as I can. Back at home I started crying…

Finally laying in my bed I started thinking. What to do if it happens again? Or worse, if I see this guys again? I was crying and could not sleep.

I started to find for a solution: Self-defense! I used every keyword I could imagine to find the perfect one. I will not explain how I came to Krav Maga, but I finally did. This system is by far one of the best and realistic systems out there. And the best thing was, I could learn it online!

Source: Jenny
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Crop Circles: The Ongoing Enigma

I’ll start this off with a controversial statement. I thing the crop circle (or corn circle as it is sometimes referred to) phenomena is currently the greatest terrestrial scientific puzzle going – full stop.

I admit from square one that I haven’t the foggiest idea what they actually are, or represent, but I at least think I know what they’re not.

I’m sure the phrase ‘crop circles’ need little introduction. I can’t imagine too many people being ignorant of the general phenomena – there’s lots of books, media coverage, internet sites, TV specials, feature films, even calendars which have, and continue to cover the subject.

In general, by way of a probably unnecessary introduction, crop circles are geometric patterns, pictograms that are often generally circular but not always, that appear mysteriously in crop fields, usually overnight, perpetrated by person or persons, or by a non-person or non-persons, unknown. While these ‘circles’ have appeared in many countries they tend to be associated by the public mainly with England. They have been especially common over the past three or four decades, though some earlier reports are on record.

There’s no denying the picturesqueness of them, and often, in fact in more recent times, their geometric complexity.

There’s no doubt that crop circles exist – that’s undisputed. Crop circles are an ever on-going phenomenon, the pictograms growing in complexity year by year. So there’s an evolutionary pattern that needs explaining. And at least crop circles have the decency to sit still and not vanish without trace like UFOs, the Yeti and the lone mysterious interstellar ‘wow’ signal so suggestive, yet so illusive of proving the existence of, extraterrestrial intelligence!

So what the hell are crop circles? Are they a new form of human graffiti? Are they messages from extraterrestrials? Are they a cry for help from our own Mother Earth or Mother Nature? Are they a now and again mysterious, but ultimately natural, even if chaotic feature of Mother Nature – say weather or biological phenomena? Are they in fact none of the above?

A few data points to start with if you please.

Firstly, it’s now clearly an ongoing phenomenon, not a one or two year fad that college kids revel in doing (like goldfish swallowing or VW cramming) before something new grabs their attention for fun and games and mischief. Now I’ve likened crop circle ‘art’ to graffiti ‘art’, and of course graffiti is an ongoing fad, but there’s a vast world of difference between some spray paint on an alleyway brick wall that harms no one and crop circles which robs farmers of income – at least IMHO.

Secondly, let’s look at geographic distribution. Crop circles have appeared in many countries – that alone rules out just your lone rogue hoaxer or two. However, they do tend to be identified more with countries that have English as a native language, and in particular, by a relatively massive lot, the United Kingdom; Great Britain; England. This may be an artificial artefact as most of the relevant literature is in English. I mean there may be lots of crop circle activity in Asia, but Asian languages aren’t represented in the media in proportion to population. Still, I’d wager that there is a real concentration in select geographical areas (i.e. – England), and that too needs explaining.

Thirdly, crop circles tend to be concentrated in areas of reasonable population density, though that could also be an artificial artefact.  If they happened in Antarctica or the Sahara Desert there would be relatively few witnesses and reports and evidence. As well, any evidence would tend to be erased or eroded fairly quickly. Still, I’ll take it as a given that crop circles do tend to be concentrated in more humanly populated areas.  

And now for the non-explanations!

The Natural Phenomena Connection: Crop circles don’t look natural. They most certainly do look like artificial creations, the creations of intelligence. However, before pursuing that chain of thought, one, in all fairness, needs to consider a non-intelligent (natural) explanation.

Mother Nature is not widely known for producing complex structured geometric patterns in non-living materials – snowflakes and crystals aside. Nature tends to be more chaotic. Patterns – symmetry is another valid term – are usually one way, and a fairly foolproof way at that, of distinguishing something natural from something artificial – which is why the ‘canals of Mars’ or the ‘face on Mars’ attracted so much speculation. Now clouds, for example, can take on all sorts of weird shapes or a pattern if you like. Every now and a rare again you’ll see a pattern or a shape in a cloud which reminds you of something else – that’s just random probability. 99.9% of the time, when you look at a cloud, all you can identify or think of is ‘cloud’. But that other 0.1% of the time – well, it’s just a freak of nature.

Freaks of nature, very rare natural phenomena, certainly can and have happened, no more so than with all things meteorological, like clouds – weather phenomena. There’s documented cases of paper straws being driven into hardwood trees via the force of tornado winds. Ball lightning is another case in point. So, a freak of nature, weather-related in all probability, may account for some of the relatively simpler flattened crop circles.

In the beginning of the modern crop circle phenomena, the pictograms were fairly simple circular patterns in various crops. It was thought that perhaps swirling storm winds, whirlwinds, mild tornados, or other sorts of wind vortices might be responsible, though few newly created circles were created under those sorts of weather conditions – and why only at night? Say a whirlwind as cause for the effect. But, I defy anyone to examine the more complex geometrical (and often fractal) patterns and tell me how Mother Nature, meteorologically or otherwise, did it! Since crop circles exhibit patterns or symmetry, then that argues against them being natural or nature-made phenomena. Life forms certainly exhibit patterns or symmetry, but whatever crop circles are, they themselves aren’t alive, so again, we rule out a natural explanation.

Today, no thinking person in their right mind could look at these highly complex geometric patterns (not all are circles anymore) and think that Mother Nature could have produced them. If crop circles are natural, it nearly has to be weather related and no kind of weather can produce complex geometric patterns in crops. So, crop circles really have to be the product of intelligence; there’s no way Mother Nature can be held accountable for these complex geometric pictogram formations – that’s now undisputable. Scratch Mother Nature.

The Human Connection:  That human beings are the culprits behind the crop (or corn) circle phenomena is taken almost as given by most people. Humans are the most logical and most accepted explanation, especially by hardnosed sceptics of all things weird, strange and the downright paranormal. But, there are several problems with such a blanket explanation that crop circles are terrestrial hoaxes perpetrated by people with too much time on their hands.

Question one: assuming crop circles are hoaxes, what is it about the British mind set that prompts them to commit these ‘works of art’? That’s never been explained. Nearly all crop circles are British crop circles. Although there are isolated cases from other countries, crop circle formations are 99 & 44/100% reside in merry old England – no arguments there. Maybe crop circle hoaxers might be reluctant to do their thing in the USA where farmers shoot first and ask questions later, but why not France, Canada, Australia and a host of other nations with major agricultural (crop) industries?

Question two, again assuming hoaxes, can the sum total of crop circle formations be explained by artistic human intelligence, keeping in mind the restraints of sheer numbers of circles; the period of limited darkness in which to operate (high summer in England); the fact that it is dark; the possibility of being caught (you don’t want to use floodlights or flashlights); not to mention the ever additional time required for the ever increasing complexity of these crop circle formations?

That all crop circles are human hoaxes is ridiculous. Have you ever read of someone being caught in the act, apprehended, and prosecuted for trespassing and destroying personal property (these crops are valuable commodities to their owners)? [Actually, a few have been caught, but so few relative to the thousands of circles created that for all intents and purposes, if all are hoaxes, then the vast, vast majority are getting away with their vandalism.]

It’s clear from some media coverage and internet sites that lots of people, even organisations, claim responsibility for crop circles, even to the point of giving demonstrations (in daylight of course) how its done. Case solved? Hardly!

These circles have been appearing on a regular basis for decades now. So what’s the point of continuing to produce them, at considerable time and trouble, having ‘proved’ your ability, or proven your point, that you can do it. All the more so as especially seeing as how in the process you are trespassing as well as vandalising another person’s property. People or organisations admitting to creating crop circles are publicly admitting that they have performed criminal activity.

From what I’ve seen on YouTube or documentary interviews, farmers really are pissed off over this issue. This costs them money in terms of lost crop yields, not to mention having to put up with hoards of sightseers, the press and investigators. Affected farmers would dearly like for nothing better than to toss these jokers behind bars and throw away the key! But you have got to catch them first – and few have – so that’s one of the flies in this ointment. 

So, why haven’t all these guilty claimants been arrested, charged, tried, fined, forced to pay restitution or do community service, even jail time for damages, and thus put an end to their activities? Maybe because, nudge, nudge, wink, wink, these claimants are no more guilty or responsible than the little old lady from Pasadena or the man in the moon.

Sorry to burst this bubble but if you openly admit to criminal activity, you get slapped down by the hard hand of the law, and then some. Question for all those who seriously believe that crop circles are a version of terrestrial graffiti – has any claimant ever been seriously dealt with by relevant legal authorities? Damned if I can find evidence of it!

It doesn’t wash; it doesn’t make any sense, even if on the surface it’s the most likely logical explanation, so by Occam’s (Ockham’s) Razor I should accept this explanation, but I don’t. One reason is that there is a rather long history of people confessing to crimes they didn’t and couldn’t possibly have committed. Why? I’m no psychologist, but I rather expect to liven up they very dull little lives – it’s their moment in the sun; their face on TV; their name in the newspaper.

And while some people have admitted to being the perpetrators of hoaxing crop circles (publicity seekers?) perhaps it’s the people who keep quiet who are the real culprits! But a somewhat similar argument applies. Again, why haven’t these new age graffiti (so-called) artists been caught in the act? To the best of my knowledge very few individuals have ever been caught in the act, far less arrested, tried, fined and/or imprisoned. By ‘few’ I mean the numbers caught are very few relative to the multi-hundreds to thousands of reported crop circle incidents. Their graffiti activities are in relatively densely populated areas – we’re not talking Antarctica, the Sahara Desert, or national wilderness parks here folks; local people, especially crop farmers would be on the alert, maybe even  holding stakeouts in areas of high crop circle activity. Yet we have thousands of these circles appearing on an ever on-going basis. Few are ever caught in the act. Thus, I conclude that while of course there are some hoaxes, probably the simpler and smaller of these circle patterns, that’s it – a relative few.

I mean think of the obstacles hoaxers face. They (I’m assuming a team here) have to create a highly geometrically complex pattern, usually extending over a fairly wide area (often hundreds of square metres), in the darkness, without ever being caught. Pull the other one!

Another puzzling feature, if all crop circles are made by human hoaxers, is the absence of mistakes. The lines are straight; the angles perfect; the circles circular and in general to the eye, the overall imagery and geometry looks spot on. And in many cases it is quite complex imagery and geometry, all made during the short summer British nights, presumably by individuals or small groups, while in a rush to avoid detection, using flashlights (if that). Where are the human mistakes? Once crops are crumpled by mistake, you can’t un-crumple them again – there’s no crop circle whiteout or correction fluid. Any mistake, say a right angle that was actually 88 degrees or 92 degrees would immediately be seized upon by the sceptics as proof – ah ha, it must be humans because there’s human error. Another thing I haven’t read about, but should have, is where are the human footprints or tire marks or any other evidence of human activity at crop circle sites like a dropped bit of litter or something accidentally left behind in the rush. I mean these are the things one looks for – clues and evidence at a crime scene. Where is the crime scene evidence that implicates humans?

Now to my way of thinking, two things seem crystal clear here. There’s intelligence behind the crop circle phenomena; equally clear (to me anyway) it’s not by any stretch of the imagination a 100% human intelligence – the hoaxes – criminal activity – referred to above.

The Terrestrial Intelligence but Non-Human Connection: If the intelligence behind crop circles is not even close to being 100% human intelligence in the main, then it must be a non-human intelligence, though not of necessity extraterrestrial intelligence. So, what about a non-human intelligence? While we share this planet with other relatively intelligent species – dolphins, parrots, apes, the octopus – I find it unlikely in the extreme that crop circles can be blamed, or credited, to any of them.

Since I know of no other native intelligences on Planet Earth, I’m somewhat reluctantly forced to now go for an extraterrestrial intelligence, without any evidence other than process of elimination. However, there’s some logic behind that assumption, otherwise I wouldn’t entertain it.

The Alien or Extraterrestrial Connection:  For better or worse, crop circles have been associated with UFOs to a greater or lesser extent depending on whom you consult. However, one immediate objection would be that a solid UFO, landing in a field, couldn’t produce these sorts of complex patterns – that would have to be one hell of a weird UFO ‘car’ body underbelly!

Assuming now not human, but extraterrestrial intelligence (the UFO connection – if any), what is the motive? Sceptics have pointed out, rightly so, that it is ludicrous in the extreme to suggest that extraterrestrials come here, from there (wherever there is) just to do geometrical graffiti using agricultural crops as their canvas! It’s probably equally ludicrous to suggest that UFOs are alien tourist buses, the extraterrestrials on a holiday tourist tour, and England has been set aside as the area for extraterrestrial artists on tour to practice their art!

Still, perhaps these pictograms are an attempt at communication – extraterrestrial intelligence to terrestrial intelligence.

SETI (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) scientists have always maintained we could decipher any deliberately sent alien message, optical and/or radio, because we shared in common at least an understanding of fundamental mathematics and nature (the laws, principles and relationships of physics). Now crop circles, pictograms if you like, are certainly mathematical in structure – geometry if nothing else. But what can they mean?

A traditional (radio/optical) SETI equivalent of mathematical pictograms could be sending a series or radio (or optical) pulses representing prime numbers. Another starting point could be a series of pulses – a ‘dit, dot, dot, dit, dash, dash, dash, dit, dit’, or [1 + 1 = 2].

So, perhaps these pictograms are an introductory ways and means of establishing a communicative relationship, starting off with some geometry. That might be a more effective way of doing things. If you were an alien, how would you try to establish first contact and communication? I mean for starters, you could just send radio and/or optical signals (traditional SETI strategy noted above) and hope we were looking at the exact right time and in the exact right direction and (for radio) at the exact right frequency. The odds for a successful contact are not that crash hot, IMHO.  

You could leave an artefact on the Moon (as in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey), but the Moon has a lot of real estate and there’s no guarantee any artefact(s) would be found.

You could land on the White House lawn with a ‘take me to your leader’ (sort of as in The Day the Earth Stood Still films) and get shot for your troubles!

You could buzz all and sundry in your UFOs, and abduct us, but that’s gotten nowhere, at least to the best of my knowledge. In any event, such UFO events are too transitory. You need not only a close to terra firma presence, but a longer lasting (relatively speaking) record of your existence. Crop circles fill the bill nicely. No danger of being overlooked; no danger to yourself. Of course the logician in me says that this is one hell of a weird way of trying to establish communication, but I’m no expert on alien psychology or alien logic – and neither is anyone else. It’s not a ways and means predicted by SETI scientists, but it is a ways and means.

However, all up, using crop circles as a means to establish communications just doesn’t seem to be that entirely logical, vis-à-vis landing on the White House lawn. Aliens I assume wouldn’t go to all the effort of coming here just to draw us pretty pictures in crop fields – unless of course maybe these are alien college students doing their mischievous pranks.

Assuming aliens, but not alien pranksters or trick or treaters out cruising our solar neighbourhood, then what – or now what?

Speaking of those damn UFOs, do crop circles and UFOs share any traits that might firm up the presence of an alien intelligence(s)? Yes indeed.

Both became well known common phenomena within a relatively narrow time frame window relative to our overall history – that window being the latter half of the 20th Century. While we do have isolated examples of both before that era, it was roughly 1950+ that saw the two phenomena bloom, UFOs first, then the crop circles – which makes sense.

Both are ever ongoing phenomena.

Both have evolved in complexity over time. The geometric patters of crop circles have grown ever more intricate; in fact, something relatively new in the on-going evolution of complexity of crop ‘circles’ is the development of actual images pressed into the crops instead of purely geometrical symbols – images like faces, etc. But what’s really interesting is that some of these images only really stand out under low light angles like occur in the early morning or late afternoon. That’s getting more than just a tad sophisticated. Complexity evolution regarding UFOs started off with them as mainly lights in the sky, hence close encounters (of the first, second and third kind); finally abductions.

And both exhibit intelligence behind them – at least in part. Crop circles nearly always exhibit intelligence behind their manufacture; UFOs to a lesser extent, except of course for the unsolved cases, which are the smoking guns we’re really interested in.

Both are global in scope, yet both have geographic areas where there appear to be flaps or concentrations – of longer duration for crop circles; shorter for UFOs. These flaps or concentrations occur in time frames as well as in locations. 

There might be one other association with UFOs, albeit not the sort of UFOs one tends to associate with extraterrestrial intelligence. In this case the UFOs are more akin to ball lightning or the World War Two ‘foo-fighters’. So, an apparently associated if somewhat rarer phenomena are motion pictures that shows a small ball or balls of light executing a smooth trajectory over or near crop circles. From what I’ve viewed, maybe its birds, but I didn’t see any flapping activity or maybe paper or toy balloons blowing in the wind – though the pathways seemed too smooth to cater for random wind movement or wind gusts, and even bird flight is somewhat erratic. What could give the illusion of small balls of light relatively close to ground level? That is, we’re not talking Venus or high altitude weather balloons or clouds or flares or searchlights or aircraft lights, etc.

So, overall I’m forced reluctantly into an extraterrestrial intelligence explanation. Crop circles just might be an alien’s way of showing their intelligence and desire to communicate in a friendly, non-threatening manner. In a sense, we’ve done the same – recall the pictograms we attached to the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, and the Voyager 1 and 2 probes, all of which are heading out there into the depths of interstellar space to one day, maybe, be found by extraterrestrials.

If crop circles are alien pictograms, maybe said extraterrestrial intelligence think us pretty thick for not having figured out their message(s) – well, maybe relative to them, we are thick as a brick. However, if aliens are behind these pictograms, then in one sense I think they are thick as a brick! I fail to understand, if this is an attempt at a mathematically oriented communication, why not just put a ‘crop’ circle, with fractal design, on the Moon, visible through any reasonable telescope? That alone would settle the human vs. alien intelligence debate!

When all is said and done, I have to use the Sherlock Holmes oft quoted saying that “when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth”. Still, I find the extraterrestrial intelligence possibility unsatisfactory, but probably the least impossible of all the impossibilities.

The ‘Maybe It’s Some Other Explanation’ Connection:

New Age gurus suggest that crop circles are Mother Nature’s way of telling us that we’re responsible for doing nasty things to her. Or maybe Planet Earth has mysterious energy forces that somehow manifest themselves as pictograms in the English countryside. Now I’m not (yet) into nebulous natural energy grids and ley lines and mysticism and New Age cosmic forces and extreme forms of Gaia Theory as explanations of crop circles. But, then seeing as how ‘dark energy’ unexpectedly popped out of the astronomical woodwork! Still I’m not ready to gamble on those metaphysical ideas quite yet, if for no other reason than concepts like ley lines and undefined ‘cosmic forces’ and related ilk are hardly an intelligence or life force, and thusly ruled out. Intelligence has to rule here. 

So, maybe crop circles are a smoking gun that we do live in a simulated Universe and on a simulated planet. All other ‘rational’ explanations are equally, if not more so, ridiculous. If extraterrestrials, their motive isn’t at all obvious. If human in origin, crop circle graffiti should be way more widespread like ordinary back alley brick wall graffiti is, not to mention that a lot higher percentage of crop circle culprits or ‘artists’ should have been caught, tried, convicted, and fined for vandalism, destruction of private property and just plain trespassing. 

On the other hand, they certainly aren’t the landing marks of UFOs. Nor are whirlwinds a be-all-and-end-all explanation. And again, I really don’t want to try to come to terms with any mystical solutions – earth energies, Gaia, whatever. There is clearly an intelligence at work here, and I’m damned if I know what it is. If I had to vote for the most puzzling scientific mystery of our times, this would be it. However, I’m reasonably convinced it has probably nothing to do with UFOs or ETI and therefore has little relevance here, but that’s still the least plausible of all the other impossible explanations. I sure wish I knew what was going on!

Ultimately, the pictures tell the story, and that story tells you that crop circles just can not exist – but they do. How you resolve that paradox is, well, your problem. One division is to decide whether crop circles are information or communication. They certainly are information, in the way a painting is information, but are they communication? If so, and if human, then the message is ‘ha-ha, fooled you!’ If not human – ah, therein lies the rub.

Anyway, we can speculate until the crops are harvested to little end. Perhaps it might be better to conclude instead that the jury is still well and truly out despite the above mentioned Sherlock Holmes observation that “when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth”. 

In summary, I’m convinced some, many, even most crop circle cases are genuine – what I cannot suss out, rather only speculate on, is the who (or whose intelligence), the why and the how.

Further recommended readings:

Andrews, Colin & Delgado, Pat; Circular Evidence: A Detailed Investigation of the Flattened Swirled Crops Phenomena; Bloomsbury, London; 1989:

Andrews, Colin & Delgado, Pat; Crop Circles: The Latest Evidence; Bloomsbury, London; 1990:

Collins, Andrew; The New Circlemakers: Insights Into the Crop Circle Mystery; 4th Dimension Press, Virginia Beach, Virginia; 2009:

Delgado, Pat; Crop Circles: Conclusive Evidence?; Bloomsbury, London; 1992:

Fuller, Paul & Randles, Jenny; Controversy of the Circles: An Investigation of the Crop Circles Mystery; British UFO Research Association, London; June 1989:

Fuller, Paul & Randles, Jenny; Crop Circles: A Mystery Solved; Robert Hale, London; 1990:

Glickman, Michael; Crop Circles: The Bones of God; Frog Books, Berkeley, California; 2009:

Haselhoff, Eltjo H.; The Deepening Complexity of Crop Circles: Scientific Research & Urban Legends; Frog Books, Berkley, California; 2001:

Meaden, George Terence; The Circles Effect and Its Mysteries; Artetech Publishing Company, Bradford-on-Avon, UK; 1989:

Noyes, Ralph (Editor); The Crop Circle Enigma: Grounding the Phenomenon in Science, Culture and Metaphysics; Gateway Books, The Hollies, UK; 1990:

Schnabel, Jim; Round in Circles: Physicists, Poltergeists, Pranksters and the Secret History of the Cropwatchers; Hamish Hamilton, London; 1993:

Silva, Freddy; Secrets in the Fields: The Science and Mysticism of Crop Circles; Hampton Roads, Charlottesville, Virginia; 2002:

Thomas, Andy; Vital Signs: A Complete Guide to the Crop Circle Mystery and Why It Is NOT A Hoax; Frog Books, Berkley, California; 2002:

Further recommended viewing:

Gazecki, William (Director); Crop Circles: Quest for Truth; Eagle Entertainment DVD; 2002:

Source: John Prytz
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In Bible versus Quran: the Lord Jesus denies the Weather Forecasts

The Sons of the Lord God in Bible versus Quran (20)

This is the 20th article (and the last one) of the series:

“The Sons of the Lord God in Bible versus Quran”

The Bible says that the Lord Jesus said no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again of water and the Spirit and that which has been born of the Spirit is spirit. The Noble Quran says that the Spirit belongs to Allah’s knowledge, about which you know not. Also the Quran replies the disbelievers who claim that the Angels are God’s daughters; and also, the Quran answers the dualists who claim that Satan is Allah’s partner.

It is interesting that the Bible claims that the Lord Jesus said that the wind blows wherever it pleases, you hear its sound, but you cannot tell where it comes from and you cannot tell where it goes.

From the scientific point of view, winds are plotted on surface weather analyses indicating the direction the wind is blowing from as well as its strength, and over much of the globe wind speeds are measured over a ten-minute time frame. Wind direction is reported by the direction from which it originates and where it goes with the use of weather vanes. Everyday, the “Weather Forecasts” on TV, radio, newspaper etc. determine precisely the direction of the wind, where it comes from and where it goes.

Hence, the Bible initiates an important question:

Has the Lord Jesus refuted the climatology and the Wind Advisory? Has the Lord Jesus denied the Weather Forecasts?

As a matter of fact, I do not believe that the Lord Jesus said that; He knows better than the Scientists.

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The Sons of the Lord God in the Bible (20)

The Bible (John 3:1-8) says:

Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a member of the Jewish ruling council. He came to Jesus at night and said, “Rabbi, we know you are a teacher who has come from God. For no one could perform the miraculous signs you are doing if God were not with him.” In reply Jesus declared, “I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again.”  “How can a man be born when he is old?” Nicodemus asked. “Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother’s womb to be born!” Jesus answered, “I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit.  You should not be surprised at my saying, ‘You must be born again.’  The wind blows wherever it pleases. You hear its sound, but you cannot tell where it comes from or where it is going. So it is with everyone born of the Spirit.”

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John 3:1-8 (King James Version)

1There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:

2The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.

3Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.

4Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother’s womb, and be born?

5Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

6That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

7Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.

8The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.

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The Sons of the Lord God in the Quran (20)

The Noble Quran says that the Spirit is of the command of Allah; it belongs to His knowledge, about which you know not.

Also, the Quran answers back the disbelievers who claim that the angels were God’s daughters by asking them many sensible questions.

In addition, the Quran replies the dualists who claim that Satan is Allah’s partner in that Allah created the good things while Satan created the evil ones.

Then, the Quran says that Allah exonerates Himself from the lies they attribute unto Him.  He is exalted, above what they attribute to Him in the way of His having a child or a partner.

Essentially, the Quran decisively forbids saying that Allah has a son.

It is not befitting for the Majesty of Allah to take to Himself a son.

Allah is exalted, magnified; He is above what they associate with Him of son or partner.  Allah is far transcendent above all that they ascribe unto Him!

In Islam, this point is very important faith wise.

  1. Basically, it is unforgivable sin to say or to believe that the One Almighty Creator [who is Allah or God or the Lord or Jehovah or whatever name(s) you are giving Him] has a son or Sons.

From the Islamic point of view, the conclusion of this essential topic that may establish or tear down the faith is that:

Any one who believe that the Almighty Creator has a son or Sons; he corrupts and spoils his faith and he is considered as a disbeliever; and in the afterlife he will dwell in the eternal fire.

Any one who believes that the Almighty Creator has no son or partner, he has a good faith and he is considered as a believer; and in the afterlife, he will dwell in the eternal paradise. 

Verses 17:85 and 37:149-159 of the Noble Quran (respectively) make the topic of the Spirit and the son(s) of God plain, clear and understandable.

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The meanings of verse 17:85

The background of the verse

It is narrated that some members of the Jewish ruling council went to the Prophet Muhammad and asked him: O Muhammad, what do you say about the Spirit? They asked him this question to know if he is a true or a false prophet.  Muhammad kept quiet. Then a revelation was coming to him.

Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse (17:85):

“They are asking thee concerning the Spirit. Say: The Spirit is by command of my Lord, and of knowledge ye have been vouchsafed but little”.

The meaning of the verse 17:85

And they (that is, the Jews) will question you O Muhammad, concerning the Spirit, from which the body receives life. Say, to them: ‘the Spirit is of the marvels of my Lord; the Spirit is of the command of my Lord, that is, it belongs to His knowledge, about which you know not. And of knowledge you have not been given except a little’, relative to His knowledge, exalted be He.

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The meanings of verse 37:149

Before Islam, the ignorant disbelievers among Arabs used to hate having female girls and they preferred having sons, also, they used to kill their female because they think that it is shameful to have females and it is an honor to have sons. On the other hand, they claim that the Angels are God’s daughters!  The verse says: So ask the disbelievers (O Muhammad): are daughters to be for your Lord, after their claim that the angels were God’s daughters, while sons are to be for them? Do you wish for Allah what you do not wish for yourselves? “That is to say, the best (as they think) are exclusively theirs?

The meanings of verse 37:150

Or did Allah create the angels females as you claim while they were witnesses to the act of Allah’s creation? Were they present thereof that they might then say such a thing?

The meanings of verse 37:151

Lo! It is indeed out of their [own] mendacity, their [own] lies, it is of their falsehood) it is due to their denial that they say,

The meanings of verse 37:152

God has begotten’, for they claimed the angels are Allah’s daughters. And verily they are liars, in what they say.

The meanings of verse 37:153

And again of their falsehood, Has Allah preferred daughters to sons?

The meanings of verse 37:154

What is wrong with you? How do you judge? It means that you consider having female an evil and shameful although you choose for Allah what you would not accept for yourselves,

The meanings of verse 37:155

Will you not then remember? Will you not then reflect? Will you not take heed from what you say? That Allah, glory be to Him, is exalted above having a child?

The meanings of verse 37:156

Or do you have a clear warrant, a Scripture stating that the angels are Allah’s daughters? Do you have a plain definitive proof that God has a child?

The meanings of verse 37:157

Allah said: then produce your scripture, and show Me that the angels are Allah’s daughters in it, if you are being truthful, about this statement of yours.

The meanings of verse 37:158

And the disbelievers have set up between Allah, exalted be He, and the angels a kinship, by saying that they are God’s daughters, while the angels certainly know that the disbelievers shall indeed be arraigned, into the Eternal Fire, to be chastised therein.

It is also said that this verse was revealed about the dualists who claimed that Satan is Allah’s partner in that Allah created the good things while Satan created the evil ones; However, the angels know well that the disbelievers who claim that will be brought before Allah and will be chastised in the Eternal Hell.

The meanings of verse 37:159

Glorified be Allah, He exonerates Himself from the lies they attribute unto Him.  He is exalted, above what they attribute, to Him in the way of His having a child or a partner.

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Verses 17:85 and 37:149-159 of the Noble Quran in one translation (YUSUFALI):

Verse17:85 (YUSUFALI Translation):

they ask thee concerning the spirit (of inspiration). say: “the spirit (cometh) by command of my lord: of knowledge it is only a little that is communicated to you, (o men!)”

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Verses 37:149-159 (YUSUFALI Translation):

Verse 37:149

Now ask them their opinion: is it that thy lord has (only) daughters, and they have sons?-

Verse 37:150

Or that we created the angels female, and they are witnesses (thereto)?

Verse 37:151

Is it not that they say, from their own invention,

Verse 37:152

“Allah has begotten children”? but they are liars!

Verse 37:153

Did he (then) choose daughters rather than sons?

Verse 37:154

What is the matter with you? how judge ye?

Verse 37:155

Will ye not then receive admonition?

Verse 37:156

Or have ye an authority manifest?

Verse 37:157

Then bring ye your book (of authority) if ye be truthful!

Verse 37:158

And they have invented a blood-relationship between him and the angels: but the angels know (quite well) that they have indeed to appear (before his judgment-seat)!

Verse 37:159

Glory to Allah! (he is free) from the things they ascribe (to him)!

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Back to my question to the smart and interested reader:

Is the Quran quoted from the Bible?

Source: Prof.dr. Ibrahim Khalil
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