Panasonic LCD TVs Vs Samsung LCD TVs, get the better large screen experience

The LCD televisions are the best that you can get in order to have high speed entertainment. They offer you sleek looks, great features as well as pleasure to eyes. Among the best players of the electronics market, the bst that you can get in this respect are the products of Panasonic and Samsung. Among them the users can select the best with the comparison between the Panasonic LCD TVs Vs Samsung LCD TVs.

These devices are available for cheap with the offers that can be hardly neglected. The Panasonic products are having the features that are best in all respects. The picture quality is the major attraction with the wide screen pleasure as well. They are suitable for the purposes of television viewing because they are having the highest vertical as well as horizontal viewing angles. These cheap LCD TVs care available with very heavy discounts on the online shopping portals. There you can compare LCD TVs according to the price as well as the features.

The best Panasonic LCD TVs in all respects are the Samsung products. They are having the best sound, picture, resolution as well as other features. They are available in all possible and needed sizes. The small ones are useful for the purpose to be fitted for small rooms. Such as the kitchen can have an extra television to get the latest cookery updates, the bedroom may have an extra TV for the purpose of watching games, the hall living room may have a very big, wide screen LCS for movies and a lot many more example of such kind. You can buy LCD TVs along with other attractive benefits as well. So go get them now with alluring offers.

Source: alfiedaniel
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Can Your Dog See the Television?

Can your dog see images on the television screen? Yes. Without any doubt in my mind, your dog can see and correctly interpret the images on television. Study after study and people I respect and admire disagree with this opinion.

Bruce Fogle, author of the “Dog’s Mind,” explains in great detail the anatomy of the dog’s eye. It is this anatomy which proves a dog can see no more than the pixels on the TV and these pixels do not form pictures as they do for humans.

 Years ago a German Shepherd mix we had rescued began to bound out of bed and seemed to Saturday morning with a mood that made everyone around him to enjoy the morning. As humans, it took us a little while to figure out why Saturdays were so important. We had our theories. Maybe it’s because that was one day when the family was usually home most of the day; school and work behind us. He would join the boys in front of the television and it seemed he might like the noise of cartoons. I would hear him from the other room making verbal noises that varied from whining to growling to outright barking. Thinking the “boys” were playing, I would go about my morning work.

One Saturday completely changed the way I would view dogs and made me want to learn more about them.

 We lived in Arizona at the time and one Saturday, I decided to take a break from my chores with the boys. I was surprised when one of them switched channels from cartoons to a show where two local newscasters featured dogs and cats who needed to be adopted. I was curious, but even more so when my sons joined me on the couch leaving Gunner sitting in front of the TV.

 His ears stood straight up as the music and introduction for the show began and he started prancing around the room, high-stepping as if he was in a marching band. I had never witnessed this behavior though for my boys it appeared to be old hat.

 Gunner settled for the commercial break and then followed a half hour of some of the most entertaining television I have ever seen. Gunner verbally gave his opinion on every animal paraded through the show, though the cats merely received a grudging growl.

 The dogs were a different matter and I watched in awe as Gunner put his nose on the TV dog and sometimes it merited a paw. Whenever here was a German Shepherd, however, he became highly agitated, barking loudly. I still don’t know if he liked what he saw or was trying to pick a fight. Now this, again, was before I really started studying dogs as more than mere pets.

Recently my mother shared the story with me about a Beagle named Molly. My mom was at the neighbor’s house watching “Pride and Prejudice”; the dog appeared to be sleeping when a pup appeared in the show. At this point the Beagle came to abrupt attention and ran to the television and put her front paws on her new doggie friend.

 It’s important to point out that these were not dogs (or cats) that were barking or making noise of any kind and there certainly was no animal odors being emitted from the TV. Clearly the only sense these dogs had to use was their sight.

 I have six German Shepherds; Mouse got her name from her high pitched bark and some of the mannerisms she had when she was still marked as a pup for sale in my kennel. There were homes for eight puppies before Mouse’s litter was born but her mother, Austin, produced 15 puppies. Mouse was the runt. Mouse’s grandfather was a pure black long-coated Schutzhund-lined German Shepherd from Germany. She was the only one born in her litter with long hair though she actually turned into a mid-coat. When she was three months old and still at the kennel, my husband, who helped clean the kennel on his days off fell in love with her and brought her in to join our pack.

 Mouse loves “Funniest Home Videos,” from start to finish. She watches everything except the commercials where she loses interest. Cats, rabbits, kangaroos and other animals interest her immensely as do little children. However, only the dogs really get her going. She will put her nose over some of them as if trying to prove her alpha role. On others she appears to be trying to sniff them out. She will growl talk to the dogs.

Keep in mind, there is no barking coming from the TV; there is merely the human commentator telling jokes throughout the show. Sometimes, when a dog runs across the screen, Mouse will run with it and look in back of the television and then out the door as if she is trying to figure out where it went. And just like with Gunner, only the German Shepherds get a boisterous welcome. We plan to get this on camcorder for Youtube in the very near future.

 Maybe dogs’ eyes don’t look like ours but here is a thought, though not scientific; maybe their eyes are different from ours and don’t have to share the same qualities in order to see the TV screen.

Source: Cathy Jordan
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Cooking Shows on Television – What Can You Expect?

A cooking show has always been basically a television or radio program that features food preparation. Usually, a celebrity chef who cooks in a kitchen inside a studio set hosts the show. Over the course of the program, the chef will prepare various dishes. He or she will also go through the various processes and different stages of cooking with the audience. Cooking shows on television are quite popular. They are often meant to be educational as well as entertaining. Usually, the chef host provides instructions on how to cook various dishes in every episode.

The Modern Cooking Shows on Television

Cooking television shows are intended to create a fictitious reality in an attempt to strengthen network viewer’s base beyond the show itself. This offers a connection between the network through the celebrity chef and the audience.

Although cooking shows on television rarely achieve top ratings, they are still quite popular. In truth, they are likely one of the most watched daytime shows. They have become popular staples of daytime programs. It is not really surprising that many networks feature cooking shows. They can fill an hour of daily programming with these shows and they are assured of good ratings. Cooking shows on television are also easy to produce because they are significantly cheaper to set up as well.

The Hosts of Cooking Shows

Many cooking shows on television have run for several seasons now. Many of these are locally sponsored. The chefs hosting these shows seemingly share one characteristic – they are all interestingly flamboyant. They exhibit unique personalities that effectively drive the ratings. All of them offer something different to their viewing audiences. One of these chefs is Alton Brown of the Food Network who basically explores cooking as a form of science. He also educates the viewers about the history behind various foods. He also teaches the audience about the benefits and drawbacks to purchasing certain kitchen equipments.

There are cooking shows on television that focuses on homemade dishes or meals that can be made easily at home. Some shows features special segments like food recycling. There are segments that offer tips on how to choose the right appliances, tools and equipment. Every show has its own theme. Over the years, watching these shows has become part of people’s daily habits. As a result, Alton Brown among other chefs hosting cooking shows on television became celebrities.

Today’s Top Cooking Shows on Television

Some of today’s cooking shows that are worthy of note include Iron Chef of America, Top Chef, Throw Down with Bobby Flay, Guy’s Big Bite and Dinner Impossible.

Chef Bobby Flay of Chef of America has his own show as well and this is the Throw Down with Bobby Flay. Every week, the show features a specialty chef who usually is led to believe by the show that he or she is shooting an episode for the Food Network. Chef Flay will then show up and give the “victim chef” a surprise challenge.

The Iron Chef of America is a Sunday cooking show. This is basically a reality show where the challenger takes on one of the shows five celebrity chefs which include Bobby Flay. The challenger and one of the chefs will then enter into one-hour cooking competition. The show producers will provide the ingredients. They will then whip up a meal using the ingredients they are provided with. What makes this exciting is that the competitors have no idea what ingredients would be given to them.

Another reality cooking show is Dinner Impossible which is hosted by Chef Michael Symon. Basically, the show features a chef who will cook a gourmet meal for a large crowd at a moment’s notice. The chef is usually given up to six hours to prepare and cook the dishes.

One of the most popular cooking shows on television today is the Top Chef. Every week, the contestants are given 10 minutes to cook a dish. A chef guest will then judge the dishes and proclaim a winner. A contestant is eliminated every week until only one is left. The winner wins the title of Top Chef and the cash prize.

There are actually several reality cooking shows. However, if you want your basic cooking show where an interesting chef teaches you some cooking stuffs, you should watch Guy’s Big Bite. This show is hosted by Chef Guy Fien. His personality certainly makes the whole show interesting.

There are still other interesting cooking shows on television. These daily programs have certainly changed the concept of cooking shows but they are still interesting. You can still learn a lot of things from these shows and you can still expect to be entertained.

Source: ProChef360Blog
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Comparing LCD TVs and Plasma TVs

One of the biggest concerns for television consumers is determining whether to purchase a Plasma or LCD flat screen television set. Various individuals may debate the value of performance of either a LCD or Plasma TV. Choosing between them really is a personal choice and you must find the best solution for yourself.

LCD TV: this set provides a screen that is made up of liquid crystal set within a thin layer which is then situated between two plates of glass. An assortment of multicolored pixels light up forming the picture while playing. LCD TVs are lightweight and much slimmer than the plasma screens.

PLASMA TV: the screen of a plasma television incorporates the use of multicolored gas filled cells, millions of them. When the set is on, electricity activates these cells and they light up forming a picture. You get a very sharp, clear picture since plasma TVs offer you a high resolution.

LCD verses Plasma

• Screen Life: The amount of hours of TV operation before fading of the picture begins is called screen life. LCD TVs provide a screen life of 60,000 or more hours. Plasma TVs provide a screen life between 30,000 to 60,000 hours depending on the make and model.

• Angles for viewing: Plasma TVs offer more advantages of comfortably viewing various angles.

• Picture quality: Although, LCD is evolving, Plasma TVs do offer you a sharper quality of picture with more details.

• Screen burns: Plasma TVs do suffer from screen burns whereas LCD does not.

• Video games: You can enjoy gaming on either an LCD or Plasma TV, however when using an LCD you will not have to worry about screen burn in.

• Portability: Plasma TVs are not as lightweight or thin as LCD TVs, LCD televisions are much easier to move or mount on a wall.

• Power consumption: Plasma TVs heat up quicker and require the use of fans for cooling, in comparison a LCD TV consumes much less power to operate.

• Motion tracking feature: LCD TVs do not offer as good a quality of motion tracking features when compared with Plasma TVs.

• HDTV: Although both display High Definition or HD signals, LCD TVs provide a higher resolution than that of Plasma TVs.

You should have a better idea about the various features available on LCD and Plasma TVs. In order to get the best deal, you should do some comparison shopping for LCD and Plasma TVs available today (we recommend checking out Panasonic’s line of Plasmas at http://www.panasonicplasmatv.org). Choose the one that provides you with the best picture image and suits your needs and budget well.

A Plasma or LCD TV will serve you well for home theater entertainment. When you are searching for the best in viewing pleasure you should search through the online reviews to determine the best decision. Everyday there is new and improved products available and the prices are receding. This means either set will be a good purchase. Therefore you should go ahead and do your comparison shopping and then choose your own new television set. No matter which TV you choose, either the Plasma or LCD will offer you a lot in television viewing. Enjoy your shopping and enjoy the television set you bring home to watch all your favorite programming.

Source: Gray Rollins
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What Is Rear Projection Television?

What is rear projection television? The term comes from the fact that the rear projection TV sends the image onto the viewing screen from behind the screen. When you are in a movie theater, the image in projected onto the front of the screen. That is why the projector is behind the audience in a movie theater.

If you are really into television, that the bigger the screen the better, right? If you feel that way about your television viewing, then no doubt you are considering moving up to the big, big televisions that are now available in the market.

While most of the recent interest is on flat screens and LCD screens, improvements in rear projection TV makes this a wise purchase to consider. Advances in the quality of the picture using rear projection TV make this a reasonable and less expensive alternative to the big flat screen televisions.

Advances in the technology of rear projection TV provide a variety of models that have never been available before. Your normal television set probably uses a CRT or cathode ray tube to project the image. Many rear projection TV use the same technology.

These units are quite large though when you increase the screen size very much. There are offsetting picture quality benefits. You may get better blacks and colors, but if the image is not properly aligned, this type and rear projection TV can produce improper color blending.

Another type of rear projection TV is based on a Liquid Crystal Display. However, this is not the same as the LCD used in a flat panel screen. This type of rear projection TV offers many advantages including that the size of the unit is quite small in comparison to the CRT models.

There is high contrast and brightness in the LCD based rear projection TV picture. Some disadvantages also exist. I will not go into the ‘technical’ but sometimes the image looks a little fuzzy, described as trying to watch TV while looking through a screen door.

Perhaps the newest rear projection TV technology is called Digital Light Processing. As the name implies, your television image is digitized and computerized and whatever else high technology does, but you get a great picture quality without some of the disadvantages of the other types. Problems with this type of rear projection TV is that include what is called the ‘rainbow’ effect if you move you eyes quickly from the TV to the surrounding room.

Find a reputable dealer, explain your viewing needs, and look at the different types of rear projection TV yourself. There is no reason not to have the best and biggest viewing experience with all this new technology in the rear projection TV.

Source: Scott Michaels
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LCD television – the New Generation Television

LCD TVs or televisions based on liquid crystal displays are the most popular things today. Everyone is looking for a place to get rid of their old bulky television and get the thin and sleek TV. More than the looks, LCDs have better advantage than the normal TVs or CRTsets.

With LCD TV, you can watch TV without putting off the lights or without sitting at a certain distance. With 160 deg viewing angle, you have a better clarity which remains the same wherever you are sitting in the room. The pixels on it are more than a CRT set making the colors brighter and better viewed than the normal ones. The images too are sharper, realistic and detailed giving a far better picture quality than the old television sets. Higher dot pitches too increase the viewing angles giving it a wider display.

When you go for buying a LCD television look into some details like the physical address of the company or the service centre; ask for the guarantee or warranty and the home drop facility. These questions are important as they help in after sales service especially when you are not there and your family needs to go for the servicing of LCD T.V.

Some of the Top companies manufacturing LCDs include the top notch names like Samsung, LG, Sharp, Onida, Panasonic, Vizio and Toshiba. Other names include Akai, Benq, Daenyx, Haier, Hitachi, Philips and Sanyo.

Generally, a LCD television includes 2 speakers with S- force for surround effect; features like channel scan, sorting, swap and naming alongwith features like auto-off, PIP-1 tuner, picture freeze, auto sound leveler and OSD. The viewing angle differs from model to model and company but it is lesser than or equal to 180 degrees which is standard for ant LCD T.V.

It is suggested that you buy a LCD television from a online shopping store like Home Shop 18, where you can expect huge discounts and other added benefits. You can select the LCD you wish to buy from a range of televisions displayed on the website and order it online. You can pay for it either through Pay Pal – the best way to pay online or can pay once the product is delivered at your home. Since an LCD television is an electronic product and the company you are buying from is a branded one, buying from an online shopping store should not raise any questions in your mind….

Source: Meetu Ahuja
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Plasma and LCD Televisions – a Side-by-side Comparison

Want to know if a plasma television or an LCD television would be best for your needs? Here’s a side-by-side comparison that will help you make an informed decision …

What’s the difference between plasma and LCD TVs?

Plasma TV screens are made up of hundreds-of-thousands of gas-filled, colored light cells. When an electrical current passes through those cells they light up and produce a picture.

LCD TV screens consist of a layer of liquid crystals sandwiched between two glass plates. When electricity passes through the crystals, an array of tiny color pixels light up and produce a picture.

Which one has the best picture?

Plasma TVs produce a slightly more colorful picture than LCD TVs. This is due to the fact that plasma TVs display blacks better than LCD TVs, which creates better color contrast, and produces brighter colors.

LCD TVs produce a sharper picture than plasma TVs due to their higher resolution.

What sizes do plasma TVs and LCD TVs come in?

Plasma TVs range in size from 42″ to 65″ wide, while LCD TVs are as small as 2″ wide and go up to 65″ wide.” LCD TVs are thinner and lighter than plasma TVs.

Which one is better for video games?

Plasma TVs can experience screen “burn in.” This happens when a still image is left too long on a screen, resulting in a ghost of that image burned into the screen. LCD TVs do not have this problem and are therefore a better choice if you play lots of video games on your TV.

Does a plasma TV or an LCD TV last longer?

Plasma TVs have a screen life of 30,000 to 60,000 hours, whereas LCD TVs have a screen life of 60,000 hours or more.

How much do they cost?

I recently ran a price check for plasma and LCD TVs. The cheapest large-screen plasma TV was a 42″ inch model for $999. The cheapest 42″ LCD TV was $1,367.

The cheapest 27″ LCD TV I found was $550, and the cheapest 32″ LCD TV was $619. There were no plasma TVs smaller than 42.”

So what’s the bottom line?

If you’re in the market for a 42″ flat-screen or larger, a plasma TV will give you the most bang for your buck. If you want a smaller TV, or if you’re really into video games, then I’d recommend an LCD TV.

Visit the http://TheSatelliteTVGuide.com to get more information, to compare prices, and to get consumer ratings for plasma TVs and LCD Tvs.

The author, Brian Stevens, is the senior editor for TheSatelliteTVGuide.com and has written a number of articles on plasma TVs and LCD TVs.

Source: ryan@thesatellitetvguide.com
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Technology Dictionary: Convey Your Thoughts With Tech Key Words

The technical terms are those which are used by the experts in any industry; most commonly by those in the field of computers. They use these terms to communicate with the people in their field easily and feel comfortable to convey things by using technical key words. It is difficult for a common man out of this field to understand these techy terms and in that case comes the entry of “Technical or technology dictionary” to help you out with easy ways of understanding these stuffs.

The main aim behind the design or creation of the technology dictionary is to make sense of what these technical terms actually means to you. Though this may appear as a specialized language to the layman, the technology dictionary makes it easy for them and gives them an assurance of comfort to learn these terms quickly.

The technology dictionary is all about the high definitions used in the IT field and the computer related terms. It consist of all type of relevant definitions used in the technical industry and is not limited to any kind of programming languages, hardware or software, any high level OS or networking, electronics or telecommunications and many more related things. The technology industry covers all the technical terms and the technology dictionary aims to cover the explanation for all these type of related terms and definitions.

It is always worth going through the guidelines in the technology dictionary before peeping into the stuffs provided in them. The guidelines will give you a clear walk through on how to learn and when to use the unusual words that are used in the computer industry. Also, one more thing to be understood is that ‘technology’ does not stop with computer and related industry but also it is spread over all fields where innovative and creative things have their roots.

Hence, technology dictionary is all about the collaboration of computing, networking and all the related terms of the technical database in the world. The terms and acronyms provided in the technology dictionary endows with the definitions and meanings of them in the wider area of information technology, science and computers. The creators and information providers of technology dictionary are the experts who are experienced in these fields. All these information provided saves the time that they spend to search for the meanings of these tech terms to their understanding. The technology dictionary is also valuable to people working in technology, computers, owners of these fields and even to the potential buyers.

There are books and CDs and DVDs available for learning all these technical terms and definitions but the technology dictionary covers the entire concept of people’s expectation and no word could be said as ‘missed out’ in the dictionary. The dictionary is prepared in the user’s point of view and it suits all types of age groups, starting from school going to higher studies and to professional and also researchers and experts. So, make the best utilization of the technology dictionary and Enjoy learning!

Source: onlinedictionaries
technology

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH LAW

        SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH LAW

The intellectual thinking of man, since time immemorial, has resulted in the development of science and technology. The principles of science and technology have developed in response to differing objects of interest. Science and technology have had a great impact on the way we live. Law has tried to regulate the use and abuse of science and the extent of its application. The major question however is whether we are well equipped with the laws to regulate the use of such technologies.

The subject Law, Science and Technology is of great relevance today when Courts have become ”activists” and there has been a tremendous advance in science and technology. The need for sharpening the evidentiary techniques employed in Courts with the help of science and technology cannot be denied. At the same time, one has to be conscious of the limitations. The limitations of both science and the law and the need for both to join hands to strengthen the court-systems by legally admissible scientific evidence must be considered.

MEANING AND DEFINITIONS

v SCIENCE

The word “Science” comes from the Latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge” or “knowing”. According to Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, the definition of science is “knowledge attained through study or practice,” or “knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method [and] concerned with the physical world.”

In other words, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena. The term science also refers to the organized body of knowledge that people have gained using that system. Less formally, the word science often describes any systematic field of study or the knowledge gained from it. Perhaps the most general description is that the purpose of science is to produce useful models of reality. Most scientific investigations use some form of the scientific method. Science as defined above is sometimes called pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of research to human needs. Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

-Natural sciences, the study of the natural world, and

-Social sciences, the systematic study of human behavior and society.

v TECHNOLOGY

The word “technology” comes from the Greek word technologia, which means the systematic treatment of an art, form or skill or a manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes, methods or knowledge. In other words, the term technology refers to the application of science, especially to commercial or industrial objects.

v LAW

A rule of conduct established and enforced by the authority, legislation, or custom of a given community, State, or nation. In essence, law is the tangible and intangible context that links individuals to the community. In addition, it defines responsibilities of individuals to society as much as it defines and protects individual rights. In short, it is a pillar of good governance.

INTER-RELATIONSHIP OF SCIENCE AND LAW

Today”s high technology society forces the two professions (law and science) to interact in a wide array of cases. Legal disputes involving patents, product liability, environmental torts, regulatory proceedings and criminal cases are some fields of such interaction. Further, law and science encounter each other in the laboratory through a number of actions governing intellectual property, research misconduct, etc. The fact-finding agendas of the two disciplines have frequently begun to overlap, if not merge. Because there is a general lack of understanding of each culture, these interactions often lead to a cognitive friction that is both disturbing and costly to the society. Scientists are distrustful of the lawyers and legal proceedings and prefer not to venture into the courtroom. The scientific community that believes that its methods and procedures are above legal scrutiny and questioning often frustrates lawyers. Lawyers and scientists seldom speak the same language. Each should develop a better understanding of the principles and methods of the other”s profession. Bridging the gap between the two cultures is a challenge that this conference seeks to address.

Science and technology seek knowledge through an open-ended search for expanded understanding, whose truths are subject to revision. Law, too, conducts an open-ended search for expanded understanding; however, it demands definite findings of fact at given points in time. The meeting of these two disciplines in the courtroom magnifies the differences between the two cultures. Even the search of truth does not serve the same aims and may not be subject to the same constraints and requirements.

The Courts today deal with complex cases relating to highly sophisticated crimes where criminals take care to erase all evidence of their involvement. In such cases, modernized, scientific and highly sophisticated methods are required to trace the involvement of criminals. A report published in the New York Times (August 7, 2008) stated that with a new analytical technique, a fingerprint can reveal much more than the identity of a person. It can also identify what the person has been touching: drugs, explosives or poisons, for example. Such a laboratory technique can have a wider application in crime investigation. The chemical signature could also help crime investigators trace out one fingerprint out of the smudges of many overlapping prints if the person had been exposed to a specific chemical.

Then there are serious cases of medical negligence and related torts where rival parties seek to rely on expert evidence. Even in the field of environmental pollution involving toxic substances, there is serious difficulty in finding out the levels of danger, the extent of actual and latent damage to humans and environment, and there are uncertainties in accepting the technology installed by the polluter to conform to environmental standards. In some civil cases where handwriting, forgery, or paternity issues are involved there is extensive use of scientific techniques. The Courts are thus dependent and, in fact, compelled to analyse evidence of experts examined on each side. There is again the difficulty of evaluating the conflicting expert evidence adduced by the contesting parties in an adversarial judicial process. However, none can deny that expert witnesses retained by parties often are partisan. In such cases, the technique of “Hot Tubbing” must be embraced. The Australians discovered the technique of “Hot Tubbing” to improve expert evidence. In this procedure, also called concurrent evidence, parties still choose experts, but they testify together at trial-discussing the case, asking each other questions, responding to inquiries from the judge and the lawyers, finding common ground and sharpening the open issues. According to UCLA law professor Jennifer Mnookin, “‘Hot Tubbing is much more interesting than neutral experts.”

DEVELOPMENTS TILL DATE AND THE RECENT TREND

In this era of genomics, of crime prevention and of conviction the following questions need special attention:

  1. Is the legal profession ready for this new information?
  1. How would these techniques benefit the justice delivery system?
  1. Is our society ready for the implications that genomics brings to every facet of our lives?
  1. Is our society struggling with the ethical and social issues thrown up by the new biology such as human cloning, use of animals in biomedical research, etc.?
  1. With the rapid progress in science, are laws in their present form really able to deliver justice efficiently or is some rethinking in the form of new laws or amendments to existing laws required?

Before any major changes can be effected, all stakeholders have to sit together and look for the answers to these unsolved problems. This contact which was missing in India became a reality when the first ever conference of this kind was held. This conference, who”s Chairman was the erstwhile President of India; Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam formed the basis of the ”Hyderabad Declaration on Impact of New Biology on Justice Delivery System”. These deliberations of law were co-organised by the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) and NALSAR University of law. The deliberations brought together the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, representatives from various Commissions like the Law Commission and the Human Rights Commission, Directors of the National Law Schools and other legal luminaries, lawyers, scientists, doctors, bio-industrialists, NGO”s, police investigators, journalists and a couple of participants from abroad. Inter alia the meeting emphasized the following:

  • To establish a Human Genetics Commission to provide technical and strategic advice about the current and emerging issues in Human Genetics, and a consultative mechanism for development oh National Genetics Policy and guidelines in that area;
  • To establish an Ethics Committee to assess ethical, legal and social issues raised by research on human genome and use of DNA databases;
  • To statutorily define status of human embryo so that research on embryonic cells is done under statutory control and regulations;
  • To devise a mechanism to establish links with the International Community of Dispute for resolution of new issues in new biology;
  • To suitably amend the Patents law to strike a fair balance between public and private interests in case of patents that assert property rights over genetic material.

 

IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON INVESTIGATION

Science is a compelling and commanding weapon in the armoury of administration of justice. Forensic Science is a science pertaining to law. In particular, it works as the branch, which is used mainly in criminal investigation and findings of which can lead to arrests and convictions. Undoubtedly, scientific investigations generate evidence in favour of the victims and against the accused. Forensic Science helps in providing the identity of the culprit or the accused who willingly or unwillingly, in most of the cases, leaves the mark of his crime, thereby making the job of the investigator much easier in proving the culpability with the aid of Forensic Science.

Forensic Science provides scientific study for investigation of crime. The growth, development and use of Forensic Science in detection of crime in developed countries are tremendous and increasing with new techniques. The area of Forensic Science in India has not been properly looked into, as it ought to have been and more so when the average acquittal rate is alarmingly high. Therefore, in our country, also, the necessity and importance of Forensic Science hardly needs any emphasis. The lack of understanding and appreciation of the importance of specialists in general, by non-specialists, in all fields, cannot be denied. The field of Forensic Science is no exception. Many a time, neither the judge, nor the lawyer nor even the police appreciate fully, the advances or the extensive, promising potentialities of the science and the fusion of new technologies, methodologies, modalities and research. Multitask and multi-professional nature of Forensic Science needs an inter-professional approach, which is, many a time, lacking. Therefore, sincere and serious efforts are required to be made to eliminate personal and professional bias of the involved personnel and professionals.

Forensic Science in criminal investigation and trial is principally concerned with materials and circuitously through materials, with men, places and time. It embraces all branches of science and applies them to the purposes of law. The scientific examination by Forensic Scientists adjoins a missing link or strengthens a weak chain of investigation.

Systematic uses of Forensic Science provide significant assistance in answering the following questions:

(i) How was the crime committed?

(ii) When was the crime committed?

(iii) Who committed the crime?

Law-enforcement agencies refer to Forensic Experts to help solve mysterious situations concerning human life and thereby, provide help and useful contribution to the criminal courts in the journey for search of truth in criminal trials. Forensic Science deals with various aspects, including routine post-mortem to sophisticated tracking piece like DNA analysis.

Unfortunately, techniques and methodology with necessary materials used extensively in Western countries has not successfully clicked in India because of a variety of reasons, the major one being the investment of huge finance. This science is also, at times, useful in finding out the truth in some of the civil cases.

The prosecution mainly calls Forensic Scientists as expert witnesses. The practice of the defense producing Forensic Scientists or the courts consulting on their own listed experts is not very much in vogue. In fact, there is an acute need to bridge the communication gap that presently exists between lawyers, judges and Forensic Scientists. An independent analysis and evaluation of the scientist”s data and any subsequent testimony that may follow again depends on the judges” familiarity and understanding of the principles of Forensic Science.

In Western countries DNA test and profile is widely employed. In a country like ours, the need of such a test and profile may, hardly, be emphasized. In many developed countries, DNA test, genetic testing techniques and “racmization” — testing based on systematic examination of teeth and bite-marks has proved to be very useful. “Racmization” technique is currently used in Japan and Germany. It has potential to replace the traditional method that took into account the eruption and/or fusion and falling sequence of teeth. A fusion of such knowledge of Forensic Science and newly developed techniques will, undoubtedly, not only provide proper perspective and dimensions, but will also lead to detection of crime, and be a great help in search of the truth. It will be useful in the prevention and control of crimes and will provide required assistance to the parties to civil disputes, as well.

IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON THE JUSTICE DELIVERY SYSTEM

Common view is that the Indian justice administration system is slow. However, the major question is, is it the primary problem with Indian justice delivery system? The key issue is, is it is delivering justice at all in majority of cases? If a machine is faulty and makes bad products, then if one speeds up the machine, it will deliver more of those bad products. Therefore, if we speed up a malfunctioning Justice Administration System, it will simply toss up more of injustice. Is that the goal of any justice delivery system?

In the words of Justice Shayamal Kumar Sen, “The investigation process needs to be hastened; otherwise the criminal justice system will suffer”.

Justice Sen urged that research and development should be initiated in a way that would ensure that crime at the grassroots level is detected immediately and an effective management system should be introduced.

According to M P Singh, vice-chancellor, West Bengal National University Of Juridical Science, new techniques should be introduced as it will help in crime detection and the infrastructure should be developed in a way that will not only give momentum to effective criminal delivery system but will also hasten the entire long drawn process of investigation.

IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON COURT AND COURT PROCESSES

Science is not new to the Indian courts. Towards the end of 1989, one low-end computer was installed in Supreme Court of India for caveat matching. Immediately thereafter, in 1990, Justice GC Bharuka, as a sitting Judge at the Patna High Court initiated the process of court computerization. On his transfer to Karnataka in 1994, he undertook to introduce ICT (Information and Communucation Tecnologies) in the entire judiciary of the state of Karnataka.

Presently all the courts upto the taluka level are computerized. All the judicial officers and court staff are trained. There is complete automation from filing of a case to grant of a certified copy. Digital production of under-trial prisoners by video-conferencing is made possible. Through website, causelists of the Supreme Court of India, High Courts, district courts and various Tribunals is made available online, a day before.

SCIENCE AND GREY AREAS OF LAWS

v SPACE LAWS

Simply put, Space law is a part of International jurisprudence related to outer space. It follows customary practice in defining outer space, the region 100 km beyond the earth”s surface.

With the advancement of science and technology, things that were once considered impossible are now increasingly becoming possible and even fashionable. No one, some six decades back would have thought of going to space, let alone marrying in space. Thanks to science, this has now become a reality. For $2.3 million, a person can cement bonds from 62 miles straight up. Japanese company First Advantage, along with former X-Prize contender Rocketplane Global, is teaming up to offer weddings in space.

According to a LiveScience article, Rocketplane Global “is developing the XP Spaceplane for private suborbital spaceflights. The four-seat spaceship is slated to be about the size of a fighter jet and designed to carry two jet engines and a rocket engine to reach space.”

Besides shelling out $2.3 million, a person has to undergo four day”s worth of training for the one-hour ceremony. Training includes safety procedures, weightless maneuvering, and to explain to one”s family why they were not invited.

Not only this, Sapporo Breweries, the Japanese beer maker established in 1876, is brewing beer from barley descended from seeds that spent five months on the International Space Station ( ISS).

According to a CNN article, “The project is part of biological studies of the adaptability of plants to environmental changes and the impact from stresses such as space travel.”

If successful, the study will bring the world one-step closer to growing crops in space. In addition, fortunately, right now, scientists cannot tell the difference between the ISS grains and homegrown barley.

However, in order for commercial space activities to grow, there must be an attractive legal environment. Unfortunately existing space law consists mostly of some inter-governmental treaties that are quite inappropriate for business.

Space is just another place where humans are going to live. In addition, because space is almost limitless humans are going to live there in vast numbers in the future. In other words, it will become a completely new habitat. Today most activities in space are government ones because getting to and from space is so expensive. Once travel from orbit is cheap enough, as on earth, individuals, private companies and organizations will carry on most activities in space. At that time space activities will involve almost every industry, be it catering and drinks, fashion and entertainment, or law.

An attractive legal environment is needed to enable operating companies to plan passenger services and place orders for the vehicles that they require, and for manufacturers to finalize vehicle design details and raise the investment that they need in order to put the vehicles into production.

Sovereignty over outer space is another debatable issue that needs to be resolved.

CYBER LAWS AND JURISDICTIONAL ISSUES

With the advent of internet, a whole new category of crime that includes fraud, theft of services and data, copyright infringement, destruction of data through computer sabotage (viruses) and acts causing inconvenience to agencies comprising sensitive, secret or confidential functions has come up. Chances of use of the web as a forum for publication of defamatory content has increased multifold and there is a need for a clear, coherent expression of the law in this area.

Hacking time theft (stealing someone else”s internet time) pornography, sending threatening e-mail, defamatory e-mail, hacking e-mail, e-mail bombs, etc. are the main areas of cyber crime.

The people who commit cyber crimes are mostly those who have white-collar jobs, unlike usual criminals. They can even be high school kids. The territory that a cyber crime can stretch across is immense. It can go over continents

The principles that govern the exercise of criminal jurisdiction are based on the assumption that “crime” is a territorial phenomenon. Cyber crime makes these principles problematic in varying ways and in varying degrees. Unlike real-world crime, it is not physically grounded; it increasingly tends not to occur in a single sovereign territory.

The perpetrator of a cyber crime may physically be in Country A, while his victim is in Country B, or his victims are in Countries B, C, and D and so on. The perpetrator may further complicate matters by routing his attack on the victim in Country B through computers in Countries F and G. The result of these and other cyber crime scenarios is that the cyber crime is not committed “in” the territory of a single sovereign state; instead, “pieces” of the cyber crime occur in territory claimed by several different sovereigns.

Cyber crime is a primary example of cross-border crime, and so, it raises the issue of jurisdiction. This is a tricky issue. Acts on the Internet that are legal in the state where they are initiated may be illegal in other states, even though the act is not particularly targeted at that state. Jurisdiction conflicts abound, both negative (no state claims jurisdiction) and positive (several states claim jurisdiction at the same time). Above all, it is unclear just what constitutes jurisdiction: is it the place of the act, the country of residence of the perpetrator, the location of the effect, or the nationality of the owner of the computer that is under attack? Or all of these at once? It turns out that countries think quite differently on this issue. The cyber crime statutes of numerous countries show varying and diverging jurisdiction clauses. Since internet allows transactions between persons of various jurisdictions, an international agreement (to be crystallized into a convention, later) is required for any regulation. However, in arriving at a uniform law, varying standards adopted by jurisdictions across the world and the point of balance adopted by them have to be kept in mind.

Jurisdiction is a highly debatable issue as to the maintainability of any suit that has been filed. Today with the growing arms of cyberspace the territorial boundaries seems to vanish thus the concept of territorial jurisdiction as envisaged under S.16 of C.P.C. and S.2.of the I.P.C. will have to give way to alternative method of dispute resolution.

In addressing the issues of what problems were posed by cyber-crime, Mr. Corell noted that the scope of international cooperation is limited by international agreements and by the national law of the State from which information has been requested. There are also differing priorities between developed and developing countries. These differences complicate international cooperation and expand the gap between the two groups.

There is no authoritative, comprehensive elaboration of the principle of universal jurisdiction concerning cyber-crime, he said. There are different views concerning the offences that constitute crimes under international law that are subject to universal jurisdiction. There are also different opinions with respect to the significance of the obligation to prosecute or extradite, as contained in various treaties, as evidence of universal jurisdiction. Whether States are not only permitted, but also required, to exercise jurisdiction with respect to crimes under international law, is also subject to different opinions.

CONCLUSION

The magnetism of science has always captivated members of the legal profession. People look up to science to rescue them from the experience of uncertainty and the discomfort of difficult legal decisions, and are constantly disappointed.

The notion of what constitutes science and what it would take to make law more scientific varies across time. What does not vary is our constant return to the well. We are constantly seduced into believing that some new science will provide an answer to laws dilemmas, and we are constantly disappointed.

In the words of Senior Advocate K.T.S. Tulsi — “There is no doubt that [science] is going to overtake the law enforcement agencies by storm. No one will be able to avoid it. It is like standing on the shore and asking the waves of the sea not to come. What is required is a proper debate about the real value of [science] and whether it fits into the overall picture and what use could be made of it by the investigators.”

REFERENCES

v BOOKS AND ARTICLES

  1. A Convergence of Science and Law. A Summary Report of the First Meeting of the Science, Technology and Law Panel: National Research Council.
  2. Science and law blog: August 8, 2008. Fingerprints” Chemical “Footprints”?
  3. Science and law blog: August 11, 2008. “Hot Tubbing”: Old wine in New Bottles for Expert Witnesses.
  4. The New York Times: August 7, 2008, Kenneth Chang.
  5. Law, science and technology collaboration: Justice M. Jugannadha Rao-Chairman Law Commission of India.
  6. Kolkata Newsline, Thursday, February 01, 2007.
  7. A profile of forensic science in juristic journey: Justice Jitendra N. Bhatt.
  8. Do space laws need to be modified? S Bhatt
  9. Space weddings. I do. I really do. Carol Pinchefsky, 7 July 2008.
  10. Tara Blake Garfinkel, Jurisdiction Over Communication Torts: Can You Be Pulled into Another Country’s Court System for Making a Defamatory Statement Over the Internet? A Comparison of English and US Law, 9 Transnat’l Law 489, 492
  11. Bryan P. Werley, Aussie Rules: Universal Jurisdiction over Internet Defamation, 18 Temp. Int’l & Comp. L.J. 199, 219
  12. Para 1.16 of the British Law Commission Report on Defamation and the Internet, cited from (visited on 7th August, 2004
  13. 1996 US Dist LEXIS 8435 (SDNY 19 June, 1996), cited from R. Matthan: The Law Relating to Computers & the Internet, p. 2 (New Delhi: Butterworths, 2000). In this case, the defendant was an Italian, who had, using an Italian server, set up a website, under the name “Playmen”. The court had earlier issued a permanent injunction against the defendant from using that name in any magazine sold, published or distributed in USA. The court accepted that it could not order the website to be shut down as that would amount to asserting that every court in the world had jurisdiction over all information providers on the internet
  14. In info age, time for cyber savvy cops. Uma Karve. October 5, 2002.
  15. Learning the law, Indian Express. Karina Sudarsan
  16. Beware! Cyber Criminals are on the prowl, Navhind Times,March 17, 2002; by Shaikh Jamaluddin.
  17. 10 Myths of Electronic Security, Banking Frontiers September, 2002; Rohas Nagpal, Asian School of Cyber Laws.
  18. I”ll be watching you! Times of India, December 19, 2002; Zahra Khan, Times News Network.
  19. Approaches to Cybercrime Jurisdiction; Susan W. Brenner, University of Dayton – School of Law, Bert-Jaap Koops Tilburg University – Faculty of Law (TILT).
  20. Challenge of borderless ”Cyber Crime” to International Efforts to Combat Transnational Organized Crime Discussed at Symposium, 14 December, 2000.
  21. Towards Speedy, Inexpensive, Transparent and Accountable Justice; Justice GC Bharuka, 4th November, 2007.

source : www.thinklegal.co.in (ThinkLegal Resources Pvt Ltd)

           

Source: Thinklegal
technology

The top Technological Advances from 2008 to the present

We have seen a great deal of technology advances in the 2000’s. Currently, some of the best ones have occurred in the past 2 years. With the rise of more user friendly electronics and other products, people love the new advancements being made for cellular phones and other items. Below are some of the top technological advancements that have happened since 2008.

 Cell phones with Navigation

GPS businesses have to move over with the recent technology of including a navigation program on mobile phones. With the easy of turn-by-turn directions straight from your cellular device, sales of GPS systems that are installed into cars are slowly becoming obsolete. The freedom of being able to carry your navigation with you by keeping your phone on you at all times is very appealing to many travelers.

 3d Theaters and Televisions

3d movies have been around longer than the late 2000’s, but a recent trend that began in 2008 saw the installation of new screens in many movie theaters. We are also now seeing similar technological advancements in television production. Many TV companies are developing products with 3d capabilities so that such movies can be watched in the comfort of your own home.

Netbooks

Mini computers have become a very beneficial advancement for many people on the go. The lightweight, tiny laptop makes it easy to carry your business with you on the road. College students, business travelers, and others have found owning a netbook to be advantageous. Some of the cons of these products include small profit margins for businesses, as well as outdated and slow operating systems for consumers.

Inductive Power

Electricity is an important component needed to give our gadgets the power to operate. However, 2009 saw a reduction of power cords and other types of adapters to charge these items. Instead, we are now switching to inductive power through the use of charging pads and stations. This allows owners to easily power their electronics without long cords that are capable of being a tripping hazard. Future advancements on this technology include adding the charging abilities straight into table tops and other surfaces.

Mobile Phone Applications

With the opening of the iPhone App Store in 2008 came over 100,000 developed apps. Many apps are free or provided a lite version that does not cost anything. Others may range in price from $0.99 to $9.99 or higher. Aside from Apple, other cell phone companies jumped on board as well, and you can now purchase apps for Blackberry, Palm, and several other smart phones. These apps vary widely in their uses, and can make life easier with their functions. Popular applications are used to budget money, track weight loss, play games, and check the weather or movie listings.

Source: Dedtrick Burton
technology