LG Viewty Vs LG Secret: for Stylish and Fashionable Users

The latest range of mobile phones bought by the top manufacturers aim to provide technically advanced applications to the users. The astounding features, extraordinary designs and efficient functionalities attract the customers to a great extent. The latest phones are gaining popularity all over the world with features like touchscreen, high resolution cameras, good quality music players, FM radio, Bluetooth, etc. The users can now perform their various tasks on the move. The entertainment features make sure that one makes the best use of his leisure time. Stay connected with the world by accessing the internet through GPRS, EDGE and HSDPA. The other things you can do with your latest devices include sending emails, sharing content, taking pictures, downloading music, etc. The technology is updating every now and then and one can see a latest phone being launched almost everyday.

When we talk about gadgets, one of the most popular names that comes to our mind is LG. This manufacturer has the best looking phones which are extremely stylish and innovative. These contemporary designed phones are packed with the latest technologies. The most recent examples which can prove its capability are the LG Viewty and LG Secret. These handsets are getting huge responses from all over the world.

The LG Viewty is a wonderful high-end mobile phone with an impressive list of features. The 5 megapixels camera supports a viewfinder, shutter keys, flash, zoom and Schneider Kreuznach lens. Bluetooth technology lets the users share the files and music to other compatible devices. One can upload videos directly to the YouTube with this handset. The most astonishing feature is the video coverage feature that is perfect for shooting videos and slow down and watch videos in slow-motion. The LG U990 Viewty offers ample of messaging features which include multimedia messages, text mesages, emails and instant messaging. The multimedia features make the handset a high performance phone. The 90 MB internal memory is expandable with a slot for memory card. The 3 inch touchscreen adds more charm to the exciting features of the phone. The handset is endowed with a number of advanced imaging features that ensure that you get an amazing photography experience. The built in WAP 2.0 browser shows web pages in XHTML format. With the help of the SmartLight feature, one can get high quality pictures even in low light.

Another popular handset, LG secret KF750 attracts the user with its beautiful design and luxurious features. The slim sliding phone comes with a 5 megapixels camera with autofocus and face detection. The camera records video clips with the high pace of 30 frame per second. The secondary video call camera lets you make video calls. The 100MB user memory can be increased upto 4 GB. The connectivity features of the handset include GPRS, EDGE, 3G, Bluetooth and USB. The integrated WAP browser feature lets you stay connected to the internet. The music lovers would not be disappointed as the music player supports MP3, WMA, AAC and AAC+ formats. The phone can support PowerPoint, Excel and Word files and a Google package which lets you access the internet. The sophisticatedly designed handset offers awesome features in its stylish slider device. Great specifications and equally impressive looks, thats what LG Secret is all about.

One can easily obtain them at the online mobile phone shops with incredible deals and offers. Both these handsets are fantastic and are preferred by fashionable users. The LG Viewty boasts advanced imaging features when compared to the LG Secret. The memory capacities are almost same. The memory of the Viewty can be expanded upto 2GB and the memory of the Secret can be expanded upto 4GB. Both the handsets support all the latest features so there is not much difference between these handsets.

Source: Samuel Herrick
lg


The top Technological Advances from 2008 to the present

We have seen a great deal of technology advances in the 2000’s. Currently, some of the best ones have occurred in the past 2 years. With the rise of more user friendly electronics and other products, people love the new advancements being made for cellular phones and other items. Below are some of the top technological advancements that have happened since 2008.

 Cell phones with Navigation

GPS businesses have to move over with the recent technology of including a navigation program on mobile phones. With the easy of turn-by-turn directions straight from your cellular device, sales of GPS systems that are installed into cars are slowly becoming obsolete. The freedom of being able to carry your navigation with you by keeping your phone on you at all times is very appealing to many travelers.

 3d Theaters and Televisions

3d movies have been around longer than the late 2000’s, but a recent trend that began in 2008 saw the installation of new screens in many movie theaters. We are also now seeing similar technological advancements in television production. Many TV companies are developing products with 3d capabilities so that such movies can be watched in the comfort of your own home.

Netbooks

Mini computers have become a very beneficial advancement for many people on the go. The lightweight, tiny laptop makes it easy to carry your business with you on the road. College students, business travelers, and others have found owning a netbook to be advantageous. Some of the cons of these products include small profit margins for businesses, as well as outdated and slow operating systems for consumers.

Inductive Power

Electricity is an important component needed to give our gadgets the power to operate. However, 2009 saw a reduction of power cords and other types of adapters to charge these items. Instead, we are now switching to inductive power through the use of charging pads and stations. This allows owners to easily power their electronics without long cords that are capable of being a tripping hazard. Future advancements on this technology include adding the charging abilities straight into table tops and other surfaces.

Mobile Phone Applications

With the opening of the iPhone App Store in 2008 came over 100,000 developed apps. Many apps are free or provided a lite version that does not cost anything. Others may range in price from $0.99 to $9.99 or higher. Aside from Apple, other cell phone companies jumped on board as well, and you can now purchase apps for Blackberry, Palm, and several other smart phones. These apps vary widely in their uses, and can make life easier with their functions. Popular applications are used to budget money, track weight loss, play games, and check the weather or movie listings.

Source: Dedtrick Burton
technology

Lg Chocolate Kg800: Beating Style and Elegance

Beating the combination of style and elegance of LG Chocolate KG800 is unbeatable! Stylish handset with slide opens mechanism throb heart of millions; LG Chocolate KG800 provides amazing and miraculous effect. LG Chocolate KG800 is named after its color i.e. brown or chocolate with smooth sliding mechanism that offers race with other advanced technology mobiles in the market. In the growing competition LG Chocolate KG800 is beating up with other mobile phones as it is equipped with GSM tri-band version, video player, MP3 player, FM radio, voice dialing facility, 1.3 mega pixel digital camera and 128 MB internal memory besides that it offers facility for Bluetooth connectivity.

LG Chocolate KG800 measures the dimensions of 93 x 48 x 15.2 mm and weigh of 83 gram with the battery which hints on light weight and compact in size. LG Chocolate KG800 gives stunning looks with its glossy black finish and touchpad with the cool glowing red symbols. LG KG800 features a hidden keypad underneath with touch sensitive controls on the slider. The touch keys remain unseen when not in use and glow red when in use, which makes the mobile phone all the more attractive!

The digital camera of LG Chocolate KG800 is bundled with built-in 1.3 mega pixel camera comes in the 4xzoom; which is capable of taking pictures with a maximum resolution of 1280×960. User can do wonders to his picture as he can add various effects like sepia, black and white, solari and negative. The camera in the camcorder mode shoots videos in the 3GP format. This built in camera enables user to capture MPEG4 and H.236 video clips too.

The LG KG800 Chocolate works on tri-band mobile network. On the tri-band network user can send and receive emails or browse the Internet with the WAP browser with seamless connectivity. Besides that still with wireless connectivity i.e. Bluetooth or USB cables for file transfer and synchronization. User is restricted by its 128MB of internal memory, as it doesn’t offers expansion slot for external memory cards.

LG Chocolate KG800 lets you playback music files like MP3, AAC, AAC+ and WMA. This phone provides you messaging services such as SMS and MMS too. Moreover, LG Chocolate KG800 offers several different equalizer modes, random play, different skins etc.

User can go on with LG Chocolate KG800 with the non-stop talk up to 6 hours and offers stand-by time up to 200 hours.

Source: Austin David
lg

Does Modern Technology Affect Teens?

A teen wants to help change the world and make it a better place to live. He wants to be a contributor to peace, economic reforms, the improvement of public services and many other aspects of the society. To him, the best way to contribute to these changes is through modern technology.
Before the advent of the computer, the teens spent much time and effort in using their manual typewriters and had headaches in using erasing liquids, retyping their works, crumpling their papers and throwing them to the baskets. The computer changes this. Now, these teens have ease in encoding their reports, making changes and erasures and print the final work. It shortens their time, saves a lot of money for supplies and helps create presentations that wowed their teachers.
If the computer affects the teens, the internet catapulted the teens in greater heights. The internet revolutionized the way teens look at the world and the future. Through the internet, the teens are able to do research using the available engines resulting to earlier submission of their reports, assignments and other school requirements. Most of all, it gives them the opportunity to interact with other teens and discuss relevant issues making them mature and real decision makers. The internet allows them to post comments and suggestions to various organizations, government agencies and other concerned personalities. If before the teens had a hard time to criticize government leaders for their shortcomings, modern technology had encouraged them to speak up and be counted. The teen wants to be heard, and they got it!
Another technological breakthrough is the cell phone. Almost every teen owns a cell phone, some the lesser types, others the most advanced ones. The cell phone gives them access to persons they want instant contact, be it due to emergency, on issues that need urgent responses or mere social calls. Some tv networks had programs allotted for public announcements and interactions, and these teens express their criticisms, observations and requests for positive actions from the government, Problems are now attended to, thanks to the teens and their cell phones.
Modern technology is so engrossing that a teen feels helpless in accomplishing his daily tasks without the necessary gadgets, equipments and tools. Try imagining of a day that a teen has to be late because he must go to the library but has no way of informing his parents except to scamper to the nearest public phone which might be congested of callers. Or he has to find his way over dusty bookshelves to look for the needed book. What about those teens who are really shy to stand up during forums, and instead will opt to keep silent with a big idea buzzing in his head. What a pity!
These teens really want a change, and modern technology is the answer. But these teens must see to it that in order to help make a better future, they have to use technology for the common good. They must now allow these high-tech tools to enslave them, but rather, utilize modern technology to its fullest for the good of mankind.

Source: Sushil Kumar Singh Raghav
technology

LG Portable Air Conditioner

LG is a large and respected international company and has been for some years. They produce a number of different appliances and gadgets ranging from refrigerators to portable air conditioners. They sell many different kinds of air conditioners. These include Package terminal air conditioners, water source heat pump air conditioners, duct -free air conditioners, standing floor units, through the wall systems and multi-V etc.

The origin of LG electronics starts in Korea 1958 and it’s original name was gold star. The company at first produced refridgerators, televisions, washing machines and air conditioners. In 1995 the company changed it’s name to the now well know LG electronics. The LG company is proudly the producer of the world’s first plasma television and the world’s first internet refrigerator.

LG portable air conditioner models include:

  • 22 different models

  • Cooling power ranging from 7600 BTU’s to 14600 BTU’s

  • 230V or 265V

  • both heating and cooling

  • advanced ultra quiet turbo fan

They have a very sleek and modern design and are nice and light for ease of mobility. This feature alone has made this type of AC unit very popular with the general public.

As far as warranties go they vary with each Lg portable air conditioner model. You can just ask a retailer and they will gladly give you the details of warranties and warranty extensions.

LG is a large and reputable company and make a good choice as far as portable air conditioners go. However always do your due diligence and shop around before you buy. There are plenty of info sites and comparison sites on the net.

Source: Scott Winstone
lg

The History of GPS Technology

With GPS devices now in millions of cars, cell phones and purses around the country, it is hard to imagine that only a decade ago, the technology was used almost exclusively by large corporations and the military. But time has moved fast for Global Positioning Systems, which makes sense given that the story of GPS’ history begins with a measure of time.

It all starts with TIME

GPS technology exists today because scientists sought a way to measure time more accurately than it had ever been measured before. And so, they developed the Atomic Clock, a super-accurate device that measure the time within a billionth of a second.

But the Atomic Clock was not created in order to keep scientists from being late for dinner. They used the accuracy of the clock to test Einstein’s theory of relativity as it pertained to time and space.

Using Atomic Clocks to measure time and space

With these atomic clocks, scientists and engineers discovered that there were slight discrepancies in time around the globe. They began to position the clocks everywhere from Mount Everest to the Gobi Desert and then looked for tiny differences in the time in each of the locations. This information helped confirm Einstein’s view of the universe and would soon become a key part of satellite technology.

Sputnik and the creation of a military GPS system

When the Russians launched Sputnik in the 1950’s, scientists quickly learned that the satellite could be used to track locations on the ground by beaming a signal up to the satellite – and having a response returned to Earth. How that message traveled determined the location of the satellite relative to a point on the planet.

The US Navy soon began launching satellites of their own, and used them in key military actions to help troops engage in the proper battle locations and assist large ships circumnavigating the globe.

After a time, Navy engineers realized that enough satellites, placed in very specific positions with an orbit around the earth, would create a clear picture of our planet – and that this “picture” could be used map out individual points around the globe with stunning accuracy.

Completion of the System

In 1993, it all came together. The United States Navy launched the 24th of 24 carefully placed satellites into orbit – and the Global Positioning System was born. The satellites are positioned in such a way that now anyone with an inexpensive GPS device can locate their position (or another location) anywhere on the planet. And to think, it all began with Einstein and a group of scientists who wanted to find the ultimate measure of time.

Today GPS devices are a useful tool for many Americans. The technology has become very affordable and helps individuals obtain proper directions to their location while using a minimal amount of gas or time. And if someone had told you twenty years ago that GPS technology would be a “hot Christmas gift”, chances are you wouldn’t have given them the time of day.

For reviews, prices and product information about the latest GPS devices for the car, cell phone and more, visit www.gpsviews.com. At www.gpsviews.com you’ll find unbiased reviews, side by side product comparisons and everything else you need to make an informed purchase – and get the most out of your GPS device.

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Source: Mark Etinger
technology

Infinite Sound from LG

To see it real is to hear it real. LG’s Infinite Sound, which is tunes by the well-known sound specialist Mister. Mark Levinson, enhancements your High definition tv experience with maximum surround sound .The company Mark Levinson, is an expert in high-end Digital Audio Processors, built-in amps, power amplifiers, pre amplifiers, as well as Compact disc players. Mark Levinson is a top notch audio company offering high quality audio equipment.

The outcome of HDTV has changed the world as a luxury item and the LG 32LD350 Infinate Sound systems has been uniquely tuned by Mr. Mark Levinson for superior surround sound level of quality, Blu ray high definition experience and surround sound as well as enjoying YouTube video clips from Youtube.Com and DVD playback with enhanced visual quality.

The Infinate Sound built in LG 32LD350 improves the sound system of the home theatre by boosting its ability to blastl around the room in your home, creating a 3D sound-like environment. You can enjoy an excellent cinematic experience without boundaries with additional of excellent Hd sound included in the Infinate Sound. Infinite Sound gives an amazing listening experience with deep, rich bass to make the most of your entertainment.

LG Electronics and Mr. Mark Levinson announced their cooperation to develop products that deliver enhanced sound quality and a differentiated, classy design. Over the past year, LG Electronics worked with the audio legend to develop and personally tune selected advanced home theater systems such as found in LG 32LD350 HDTV .

This high-definition AV home theater system features multi-driver floor standing loudspeakers, center channel speaker, surrounds, and powerful subwoofer. The system includes a 7.1-channel AV receiver with 150Watts X 7 “ICEpower” output stage, Burr-Brown PCM 1796 24bit/192kHz DAC, multi-input HDMI switching with near 1080p upscaling, 1080p pass through, HD Radio capability, and Audessey Auto Room Multi EQ Adjustment. The system is built around LG’s award-winning “Super Blu” dual-format player.

Infinate sound generates when the LG 32LD350 HDTV is on. Infinite Sound adds dramatic sounds with LG 32LD350 by producing multi-sensorial pleasure. While subtle red light comes from around the black edges of the HDTV, a hole in the base of the HDTV is surrounded by LED lights that give viewers a subtle indication of the TV’s status.

Source: KatherineNeville
lg

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH LAW

        SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH LAW

The intellectual thinking of man, since time immemorial, has resulted in the development of science and technology. The principles of science and technology have developed in response to differing objects of interest. Science and technology have had a great impact on the way we live. Law has tried to regulate the use and abuse of science and the extent of its application. The major question however is whether we are well equipped with the laws to regulate the use of such technologies.

The subject Law, Science and Technology is of great relevance today when Courts have become ”activists” and there has been a tremendous advance in science and technology. The need for sharpening the evidentiary techniques employed in Courts with the help of science and technology cannot be denied. At the same time, one has to be conscious of the limitations. The limitations of both science and the law and the need for both to join hands to strengthen the court-systems by legally admissible scientific evidence must be considered.

MEANING AND DEFINITIONS

v SCIENCE

The word “Science” comes from the Latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge” or “knowing”. According to Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, the definition of science is “knowledge attained through study or practice,” or “knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method [and] concerned with the physical world.”

In other words, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena. The term science also refers to the organized body of knowledge that people have gained using that system. Less formally, the word science often describes any systematic field of study or the knowledge gained from it. Perhaps the most general description is that the purpose of science is to produce useful models of reality. Most scientific investigations use some form of the scientific method. Science as defined above is sometimes called pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of research to human needs. Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

-Natural sciences, the study of the natural world, and

-Social sciences, the systematic study of human behavior and society.

v TECHNOLOGY

The word “technology” comes from the Greek word technologia, which means the systematic treatment of an art, form or skill or a manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes, methods or knowledge. In other words, the term technology refers to the application of science, especially to commercial or industrial objects.

v LAW

A rule of conduct established and enforced by the authority, legislation, or custom of a given community, State, or nation. In essence, law is the tangible and intangible context that links individuals to the community. In addition, it defines responsibilities of individuals to society as much as it defines and protects individual rights. In short, it is a pillar of good governance.

INTER-RELATIONSHIP OF SCIENCE AND LAW

Today”s high technology society forces the two professions (law and science) to interact in a wide array of cases. Legal disputes involving patents, product liability, environmental torts, regulatory proceedings and criminal cases are some fields of such interaction. Further, law and science encounter each other in the laboratory through a number of actions governing intellectual property, research misconduct, etc. The fact-finding agendas of the two disciplines have frequently begun to overlap, if not merge. Because there is a general lack of understanding of each culture, these interactions often lead to a cognitive friction that is both disturbing and costly to the society. Scientists are distrustful of the lawyers and legal proceedings and prefer not to venture into the courtroom. The scientific community that believes that its methods and procedures are above legal scrutiny and questioning often frustrates lawyers. Lawyers and scientists seldom speak the same language. Each should develop a better understanding of the principles and methods of the other”s profession. Bridging the gap between the two cultures is a challenge that this conference seeks to address.

Science and technology seek knowledge through an open-ended search for expanded understanding, whose truths are subject to revision. Law, too, conducts an open-ended search for expanded understanding; however, it demands definite findings of fact at given points in time. The meeting of these two disciplines in the courtroom magnifies the differences between the two cultures. Even the search of truth does not serve the same aims and may not be subject to the same constraints and requirements.

The Courts today deal with complex cases relating to highly sophisticated crimes where criminals take care to erase all evidence of their involvement. In such cases, modernized, scientific and highly sophisticated methods are required to trace the involvement of criminals. A report published in the New York Times (August 7, 2008) stated that with a new analytical technique, a fingerprint can reveal much more than the identity of a person. It can also identify what the person has been touching: drugs, explosives or poisons, for example. Such a laboratory technique can have a wider application in crime investigation. The chemical signature could also help crime investigators trace out one fingerprint out of the smudges of many overlapping prints if the person had been exposed to a specific chemical.

Then there are serious cases of medical negligence and related torts where rival parties seek to rely on expert evidence. Even in the field of environmental pollution involving toxic substances, there is serious difficulty in finding out the levels of danger, the extent of actual and latent damage to humans and environment, and there are uncertainties in accepting the technology installed by the polluter to conform to environmental standards. In some civil cases where handwriting, forgery, or paternity issues are involved there is extensive use of scientific techniques. The Courts are thus dependent and, in fact, compelled to analyse evidence of experts examined on each side. There is again the difficulty of evaluating the conflicting expert evidence adduced by the contesting parties in an adversarial judicial process. However, none can deny that expert witnesses retained by parties often are partisan. In such cases, the technique of “Hot Tubbing” must be embraced. The Australians discovered the technique of “Hot Tubbing” to improve expert evidence. In this procedure, also called concurrent evidence, parties still choose experts, but they testify together at trial-discussing the case, asking each other questions, responding to inquiries from the judge and the lawyers, finding common ground and sharpening the open issues. According to UCLA law professor Jennifer Mnookin, “‘Hot Tubbing is much more interesting than neutral experts.”

DEVELOPMENTS TILL DATE AND THE RECENT TREND

In this era of genomics, of crime prevention and of conviction the following questions need special attention:

  1. Is the legal profession ready for this new information?
  1. How would these techniques benefit the justice delivery system?
  1. Is our society ready for the implications that genomics brings to every facet of our lives?
  1. Is our society struggling with the ethical and social issues thrown up by the new biology such as human cloning, use of animals in biomedical research, etc.?
  1. With the rapid progress in science, are laws in their present form really able to deliver justice efficiently or is some rethinking in the form of new laws or amendments to existing laws required?

Before any major changes can be effected, all stakeholders have to sit together and look for the answers to these unsolved problems. This contact which was missing in India became a reality when the first ever conference of this kind was held. This conference, who”s Chairman was the erstwhile President of India; Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam formed the basis of the ”Hyderabad Declaration on Impact of New Biology on Justice Delivery System”. These deliberations of law were co-organised by the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) and NALSAR University of law. The deliberations brought together the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, representatives from various Commissions like the Law Commission and the Human Rights Commission, Directors of the National Law Schools and other legal luminaries, lawyers, scientists, doctors, bio-industrialists, NGO”s, police investigators, journalists and a couple of participants from abroad. Inter alia the meeting emphasized the following:

  • To establish a Human Genetics Commission to provide technical and strategic advice about the current and emerging issues in Human Genetics, and a consultative mechanism for development oh National Genetics Policy and guidelines in that area;
  • To establish an Ethics Committee to assess ethical, legal and social issues raised by research on human genome and use of DNA databases;
  • To statutorily define status of human embryo so that research on embryonic cells is done under statutory control and regulations;
  • To devise a mechanism to establish links with the International Community of Dispute for resolution of new issues in new biology;
  • To suitably amend the Patents law to strike a fair balance between public and private interests in case of patents that assert property rights over genetic material.

 

IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON INVESTIGATION

Science is a compelling and commanding weapon in the armoury of administration of justice. Forensic Science is a science pertaining to law. In particular, it works as the branch, which is used mainly in criminal investigation and findings of which can lead to arrests and convictions. Undoubtedly, scientific investigations generate evidence in favour of the victims and against the accused. Forensic Science helps in providing the identity of the culprit or the accused who willingly or unwillingly, in most of the cases, leaves the mark of his crime, thereby making the job of the investigator much easier in proving the culpability with the aid of Forensic Science.

Forensic Science provides scientific study for investigation of crime. The growth, development and use of Forensic Science in detection of crime in developed countries are tremendous and increasing with new techniques. The area of Forensic Science in India has not been properly looked into, as it ought to have been and more so when the average acquittal rate is alarmingly high. Therefore, in our country, also, the necessity and importance of Forensic Science hardly needs any emphasis. The lack of understanding and appreciation of the importance of specialists in general, by non-specialists, in all fields, cannot be denied. The field of Forensic Science is no exception. Many a time, neither the judge, nor the lawyer nor even the police appreciate fully, the advances or the extensive, promising potentialities of the science and the fusion of new technologies, methodologies, modalities and research. Multitask and multi-professional nature of Forensic Science needs an inter-professional approach, which is, many a time, lacking. Therefore, sincere and serious efforts are required to be made to eliminate personal and professional bias of the involved personnel and professionals.

Forensic Science in criminal investigation and trial is principally concerned with materials and circuitously through materials, with men, places and time. It embraces all branches of science and applies them to the purposes of law. The scientific examination by Forensic Scientists adjoins a missing link or strengthens a weak chain of investigation.

Systematic uses of Forensic Science provide significant assistance in answering the following questions:

(i) How was the crime committed?

(ii) When was the crime committed?

(iii) Who committed the crime?

Law-enforcement agencies refer to Forensic Experts to help solve mysterious situations concerning human life and thereby, provide help and useful contribution to the criminal courts in the journey for search of truth in criminal trials. Forensic Science deals with various aspects, including routine post-mortem to sophisticated tracking piece like DNA analysis.

Unfortunately, techniques and methodology with necessary materials used extensively in Western countries has not successfully clicked in India because of a variety of reasons, the major one being the investment of huge finance. This science is also, at times, useful in finding out the truth in some of the civil cases.

The prosecution mainly calls Forensic Scientists as expert witnesses. The practice of the defense producing Forensic Scientists or the courts consulting on their own listed experts is not very much in vogue. In fact, there is an acute need to bridge the communication gap that presently exists between lawyers, judges and Forensic Scientists. An independent analysis and evaluation of the scientist”s data and any subsequent testimony that may follow again depends on the judges” familiarity and understanding of the principles of Forensic Science.

In Western countries DNA test and profile is widely employed. In a country like ours, the need of such a test and profile may, hardly, be emphasized. In many developed countries, DNA test, genetic testing techniques and “racmization” — testing based on systematic examination of teeth and bite-marks has proved to be very useful. “Racmization” technique is currently used in Japan and Germany. It has potential to replace the traditional method that took into account the eruption and/or fusion and falling sequence of teeth. A fusion of such knowledge of Forensic Science and newly developed techniques will, undoubtedly, not only provide proper perspective and dimensions, but will also lead to detection of crime, and be a great help in search of the truth. It will be useful in the prevention and control of crimes and will provide required assistance to the parties to civil disputes, as well.

IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON THE JUSTICE DELIVERY SYSTEM

Common view is that the Indian justice administration system is slow. However, the major question is, is it the primary problem with Indian justice delivery system? The key issue is, is it is delivering justice at all in majority of cases? If a machine is faulty and makes bad products, then if one speeds up the machine, it will deliver more of those bad products. Therefore, if we speed up a malfunctioning Justice Administration System, it will simply toss up more of injustice. Is that the goal of any justice delivery system?

In the words of Justice Shayamal Kumar Sen, “The investigation process needs to be hastened; otherwise the criminal justice system will suffer”.

Justice Sen urged that research and development should be initiated in a way that would ensure that crime at the grassroots level is detected immediately and an effective management system should be introduced.

According to M P Singh, vice-chancellor, West Bengal National University Of Juridical Science, new techniques should be introduced as it will help in crime detection and the infrastructure should be developed in a way that will not only give momentum to effective criminal delivery system but will also hasten the entire long drawn process of investigation.

IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON COURT AND COURT PROCESSES

Science is not new to the Indian courts. Towards the end of 1989, one low-end computer was installed in Supreme Court of India for caveat matching. Immediately thereafter, in 1990, Justice GC Bharuka, as a sitting Judge at the Patna High Court initiated the process of court computerization. On his transfer to Karnataka in 1994, he undertook to introduce ICT (Information and Communucation Tecnologies) in the entire judiciary of the state of Karnataka.

Presently all the courts upto the taluka level are computerized. All the judicial officers and court staff are trained. There is complete automation from filing of a case to grant of a certified copy. Digital production of under-trial prisoners by video-conferencing is made possible. Through website, causelists of the Supreme Court of India, High Courts, district courts and various Tribunals is made available online, a day before.

SCIENCE AND GREY AREAS OF LAWS

v SPACE LAWS

Simply put, Space law is a part of International jurisprudence related to outer space. It follows customary practice in defining outer space, the region 100 km beyond the earth”s surface.

With the advancement of science and technology, things that were once considered impossible are now increasingly becoming possible and even fashionable. No one, some six decades back would have thought of going to space, let alone marrying in space. Thanks to science, this has now become a reality. For $2.3 million, a person can cement bonds from 62 miles straight up. Japanese company First Advantage, along with former X-Prize contender Rocketplane Global, is teaming up to offer weddings in space.

According to a LiveScience article, Rocketplane Global “is developing the XP Spaceplane for private suborbital spaceflights. The four-seat spaceship is slated to be about the size of a fighter jet and designed to carry two jet engines and a rocket engine to reach space.”

Besides shelling out $2.3 million, a person has to undergo four day”s worth of training for the one-hour ceremony. Training includes safety procedures, weightless maneuvering, and to explain to one”s family why they were not invited.

Not only this, Sapporo Breweries, the Japanese beer maker established in 1876, is brewing beer from barley descended from seeds that spent five months on the International Space Station ( ISS).

According to a CNN article, “The project is part of biological studies of the adaptability of plants to environmental changes and the impact from stresses such as space travel.”

If successful, the study will bring the world one-step closer to growing crops in space. In addition, fortunately, right now, scientists cannot tell the difference between the ISS grains and homegrown barley.

However, in order for commercial space activities to grow, there must be an attractive legal environment. Unfortunately existing space law consists mostly of some inter-governmental treaties that are quite inappropriate for business.

Space is just another place where humans are going to live. In addition, because space is almost limitless humans are going to live there in vast numbers in the future. In other words, it will become a completely new habitat. Today most activities in space are government ones because getting to and from space is so expensive. Once travel from orbit is cheap enough, as on earth, individuals, private companies and organizations will carry on most activities in space. At that time space activities will involve almost every industry, be it catering and drinks, fashion and entertainment, or law.

An attractive legal environment is needed to enable operating companies to plan passenger services and place orders for the vehicles that they require, and for manufacturers to finalize vehicle design details and raise the investment that they need in order to put the vehicles into production.

Sovereignty over outer space is another debatable issue that needs to be resolved.

CYBER LAWS AND JURISDICTIONAL ISSUES

With the advent of internet, a whole new category of crime that includes fraud, theft of services and data, copyright infringement, destruction of data through computer sabotage (viruses) and acts causing inconvenience to agencies comprising sensitive, secret or confidential functions has come up. Chances of use of the web as a forum for publication of defamatory content has increased multifold and there is a need for a clear, coherent expression of the law in this area.

Hacking time theft (stealing someone else”s internet time) pornography, sending threatening e-mail, defamatory e-mail, hacking e-mail, e-mail bombs, etc. are the main areas of cyber crime.

The people who commit cyber crimes are mostly those who have white-collar jobs, unlike usual criminals. They can even be high school kids. The territory that a cyber crime can stretch across is immense. It can go over continents

The principles that govern the exercise of criminal jurisdiction are based on the assumption that “crime” is a territorial phenomenon. Cyber crime makes these principles problematic in varying ways and in varying degrees. Unlike real-world crime, it is not physically grounded; it increasingly tends not to occur in a single sovereign territory.

The perpetrator of a cyber crime may physically be in Country A, while his victim is in Country B, or his victims are in Countries B, C, and D and so on. The perpetrator may further complicate matters by routing his attack on the victim in Country B through computers in Countries F and G. The result of these and other cyber crime scenarios is that the cyber crime is not committed “in” the territory of a single sovereign state; instead, “pieces” of the cyber crime occur in territory claimed by several different sovereigns.

Cyber crime is a primary example of cross-border crime, and so, it raises the issue of jurisdiction. This is a tricky issue. Acts on the Internet that are legal in the state where they are initiated may be illegal in other states, even though the act is not particularly targeted at that state. Jurisdiction conflicts abound, both negative (no state claims jurisdiction) and positive (several states claim jurisdiction at the same time). Above all, it is unclear just what constitutes jurisdiction: is it the place of the act, the country of residence of the perpetrator, the location of the effect, or the nationality of the owner of the computer that is under attack? Or all of these at once? It turns out that countries think quite differently on this issue. The cyber crime statutes of numerous countries show varying and diverging jurisdiction clauses. Since internet allows transactions between persons of various jurisdictions, an international agreement (to be crystallized into a convention, later) is required for any regulation. However, in arriving at a uniform law, varying standards adopted by jurisdictions across the world and the point of balance adopted by them have to be kept in mind.

Jurisdiction is a highly debatable issue as to the maintainability of any suit that has been filed. Today with the growing arms of cyberspace the territorial boundaries seems to vanish thus the concept of territorial jurisdiction as envisaged under S.16 of C.P.C. and S.2.of the I.P.C. will have to give way to alternative method of dispute resolution.

In addressing the issues of what problems were posed by cyber-crime, Mr. Corell noted that the scope of international cooperation is limited by international agreements and by the national law of the State from which information has been requested. There are also differing priorities between developed and developing countries. These differences complicate international cooperation and expand the gap between the two groups.

There is no authoritative, comprehensive elaboration of the principle of universal jurisdiction concerning cyber-crime, he said. There are different views concerning the offences that constitute crimes under international law that are subject to universal jurisdiction. There are also different opinions with respect to the significance of the obligation to prosecute or extradite, as contained in various treaties, as evidence of universal jurisdiction. Whether States are not only permitted, but also required, to exercise jurisdiction with respect to crimes under international law, is also subject to different opinions.

CONCLUSION

The magnetism of science has always captivated members of the legal profession. People look up to science to rescue them from the experience of uncertainty and the discomfort of difficult legal decisions, and are constantly disappointed.

The notion of what constitutes science and what it would take to make law more scientific varies across time. What does not vary is our constant return to the well. We are constantly seduced into believing that some new science will provide an answer to laws dilemmas, and we are constantly disappointed.

In the words of Senior Advocate K.T.S. Tulsi — “There is no doubt that [science] is going to overtake the law enforcement agencies by storm. No one will be able to avoid it. It is like standing on the shore and asking the waves of the sea not to come. What is required is a proper debate about the real value of [science] and whether it fits into the overall picture and what use could be made of it by the investigators.”

REFERENCES

v BOOKS AND ARTICLES

  1. A Convergence of Science and Law. A Summary Report of the First Meeting of the Science, Technology and Law Panel: National Research Council.
  2. Science and law blog: August 8, 2008. Fingerprints” Chemical “Footprints”?
  3. Science and law blog: August 11, 2008. “Hot Tubbing”: Old wine in New Bottles for Expert Witnesses.
  4. The New York Times: August 7, 2008, Kenneth Chang.
  5. Law, science and technology collaboration: Justice M. Jugannadha Rao-Chairman Law Commission of India.
  6. Kolkata Newsline, Thursday, February 01, 2007.
  7. A profile of forensic science in juristic journey: Justice Jitendra N. Bhatt.
  8. Do space laws need to be modified? S Bhatt
  9. Space weddings. I do. I really do. Carol Pinchefsky, 7 July 2008.
  10. Tara Blake Garfinkel, Jurisdiction Over Communication Torts: Can You Be Pulled into Another Country’s Court System for Making a Defamatory Statement Over the Internet? A Comparison of English and US Law, 9 Transnat’l Law 489, 492
  11. Bryan P. Werley, Aussie Rules: Universal Jurisdiction over Internet Defamation, 18 Temp. Int’l & Comp. L.J. 199, 219
  12. Para 1.16 of the British Law Commission Report on Defamation and the Internet, cited from (visited on 7th August, 2004
  13. 1996 US Dist LEXIS 8435 (SDNY 19 June, 1996), cited from R. Matthan: The Law Relating to Computers & the Internet, p. 2 (New Delhi: Butterworths, 2000). In this case, the defendant was an Italian, who had, using an Italian server, set up a website, under the name “Playmen”. The court had earlier issued a permanent injunction against the defendant from using that name in any magazine sold, published or distributed in USA. The court accepted that it could not order the website to be shut down as that would amount to asserting that every court in the world had jurisdiction over all information providers on the internet
  14. In info age, time for cyber savvy cops. Uma Karve. October 5, 2002.
  15. Learning the law, Indian Express. Karina Sudarsan
  16. Beware! Cyber Criminals are on the prowl, Navhind Times,March 17, 2002; by Shaikh Jamaluddin.
  17. 10 Myths of Electronic Security, Banking Frontiers September, 2002; Rohas Nagpal, Asian School of Cyber Laws.
  18. I”ll be watching you! Times of India, December 19, 2002; Zahra Khan, Times News Network.
  19. Approaches to Cybercrime Jurisdiction; Susan W. Brenner, University of Dayton – School of Law, Bert-Jaap Koops Tilburg University – Faculty of Law (TILT).
  20. Challenge of borderless ”Cyber Crime” to International Efforts to Combat Transnational Organized Crime Discussed at Symposium, 14 December, 2000.
  21. Towards Speedy, Inexpensive, Transparent and Accountable Justice; Justice GC Bharuka, 4th November, 2007.

source : www.thinklegal.co.in (ThinkLegal Resources Pvt Ltd)

           

Source: Thinklegal
technology

LG 47LE5400 47-Inch 1080p 120Hz LED LCD HDTV Review

Life has been excellent and with advancements in technology it has got even much better. LG is really a provider that was established in 1958 with the mission of improving customer’s lives and making things simpler. Currently the corporation is 1 of the leaders in digital multimedia technology.

LG is really serious in ushering in new technology and new discoveries. It’s an organization which believes that innovations and new technology will assist enhance lives and it’ll bring the consumers closer to the life that they’ve usually dreamt of by creating and designing user friendly gadgets with elegance embodied inside the design complete with state of the art technology.

LG is at the forefront when it comes to developing the newest innovations. Its rivals are way behind it. The competition stands a pretty slim chance.It has a fair share in the marketplace along with a pretty strong influence when it comes to digital products. From cell phones, kitchen appliances to TVs, you name it and LG has it. When you take a look at the market you’ll see that LG has a quite massive following. Customers trust and patronize this brand. It’s particularly focused on developing the extremely ideal display, be it little or big. When you check LG cell phones you’ll notice that the display is far much better compared to other brands. The distinction in display is far more evident when it comes to HDTVs. Take as an example the LG 47LE5400 47-Inch 1080p 120Hz LED LCD HDTV. This newest model will surely bring LG into the upper echelons of multimedia technology.

It has LED technology that gives an incredibly slim figure and delivers wonderful clarity and color detail and brightness. The pictures are vibrant and full of life. Say goodbye to low high quality LCD TV pictures. It has full HD 1080p resolution so it has virtually double the pixel resolution. It produces stunning pictures like never just before, incredible details and superior color high quality. It has 4,000,000:1 Dynamic Contrast Ratio you no longer need to be bothered by dull colors or dark scenes. This will aid deliver stunning colors and deeper blacks than usual. No additional eye strains too. This TV is equipped with a feature known as Intelligent Sensor Technology that can detect the lighting within the room and color conditions so that the TV can automatically adjust itself to fit the surrounding environment. Is not that terrific? It’s just what we want. Just an additional testament of how LG is committed to giving the most effective of the very best to the customers.

The TV has a 47 Inch display. You will never miss any of the action with this. This is seriously wonderful for all those basketball games you’ve been meaning to watch. This TV also has a 1.78 viewing angle so it is possible to get a correct view at nearly every single position. No have to strain your neck. In the event you take place to sitting an off angle to your TV then an all it needs is really a basic adjustment. Viola! You will see the images clearly once more. The audio top quality is also superb complete with Dolby digital decoders and an output of 20 watts. It measures 44.4 by 27.2 by 1.2 inches and it weighs about 43.2 lbs.

Source: BartNortonn
lg

Technology as a Social Problem

But can one accept the forgoing? It is surely unpersuasive given the apparently enormous number of cases in which technology appears to be a manifest cause of social problems. A litany of cases comes to mind. For instance, arguably the major issue facing the world today is environmental damage, notably global warming and the associated climatic shifts and potentially catastrophic floods that will accompany this. Profligate use of gasoline, inappropriate use of solid fuels, and CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are some of the causes of this predicament. As sobering is the issue of nuclear power, the disposal of the waste from which is extraordinarily complex, time dependent, and risky.

Following the disaster at Chernobyl in Ukraine in 1986, no one will need much reminding of the social problems emanating from nuclear power production. Again, consider the issue of nvCJD (new variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, a neurological condition for which there is no cure), which has killed scores of humans in recent years and has been linked to their eating cattle contaminated by BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) during the 1980s and 1990s in Europe. The cause of BSE has been traced to the technology of feeding cattle with the remains of other animals, surely another instance where technology creates social problems.

Moreover, technologies can appear advantageous to some but may cause social problems for others. For example, if a new technology is introduced into the workplace and this requires fewer employees than before, then social problems—unemployment, anxiety, and dislocation—are clearly imposed on some even if the majority is beneficiaries. Indeed, one could go further to suggest that many workplace technologies have resulted in a decline in the autonomy of those who must work with them—machine pacing and intrusive monitoring of performance are some of the maladies frequently complained about by those who work in factories and indeed many offices. Such practices lead to stress, industrial injuries, alienation, and anomie, and the deleterious effects of increased technology in workplaces may outweigh the positive increases in efficiency and production, particularly if a long-term view is taken.

It helps understanding the role of technologies in creating social problems by distinguishing between anticipated and unanticipated consequences of their development. An anticipated social problem might involve the introduction of a technology that leads to there being less work available. For example, the spread of computerization in the newspaper industry led to the demise of the established printer. The technology here contributed to a social problem that might have been addressed in various ways (retraining, early retirements, freeze on new recruitment, etc.), but it is evident that the problem was foreseen by many commentators.

An unanticipated consequence is one where the introduction of the technology produces an effect far away from the intended sphere of influence. For example, the development of modern birth control technologies had an intended consequence in allowing women to control reproduction and was effective in allowing people to choose when and how many children to have. However, few would have expected that a problem would later emerge in Western Europe of a decline in the younger elements of the population, which exacerbates a serious problem of long-term care of the older generation and, in the longer term, to problems of maintaining population levels.

Relatedly, medical technologies help lengthen the life span, and this is usually regarded as a very positive development. But an unanticipated consequence of greater longevity is major pressure on pension funds that were designed on a different actuarial basis. In addition, with more and more people living into and beyond their 80s and supported by improved medical technologies that keep them going, there comes the problem of providing the care they tend to require as they grow frail. With fewer people available in the younger generations and increased geographical spread, we face serious, but unexpected, difficulties posed by the prolongation of life.

Source: Keeny Ali
technology